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1) [line 4] ZAKFAN ALAV B'MILVEH - he set them (the payments owed) upon him as a loan. The borrower owed two payments -- one of principle and one of Ribis -- to the lender, and after some time they agreed to combine them into a single sum in a new loan contract.
2) [line 17] KEDEI SHE'LO YOMRU BISHVIL ME'OSAV NISGAYER ZEH - in order that people not say that it is because of his money that this person converted (in order to avoid having to pay interest). Since the borrower was not Jewish at the time the loan with interest was arranged, it is not Ribis Ketzutzah (Ribis d'Oraisa) and therefore the Chachamim have the right to permit the collection of Ribis in this situation.
3) [line 25] SHETAREI CHOV HA'MUKDAMIN PESULIN - pre-dated loan documents (i.e. the date written in the document precedes the date that the document was actually signed) are invalid. The reason they are invalid is because the document asserts that the loan occurred on an earlier date than it actually occurred, thus entitling the bearer of the document (i.e. the lender) to collect from property that the borrower sold to buyers *after* that date. Since the loan did not actually occur until later, though, the lender would be collecting the property unlawfully from the buyers.
4a) [line 26] ZEMAN RISHON - (lit. the first date) the date written in the pre-dated
5) [line 29] PARDEISA - vineyard
6) [line 29] ACHLAH TELAS SHENEI (SHNEI CHAZAKAH) - he consumed the fruits of the
field for three years
7) [line 30] KAVISHNA LEI LI'SHETAR MASHKANTA - I will hide the document of the security [and claim that I am the true owner of the field and that I bought it from you]
8) [line 31] MILVEH BI'SHETAR / MILVEH AL PEH
9) [line 32] NECHASIM MESHU'ABADIM - property that can have a lien on it, such that a creditor can collect the money owed to him by taking the property from the debtor or from those who bought the property from the debtor.
10) [line 32] O DILMA K'MILVEH AL PEH DAMU - or perhaps it is [only] like a verbal loan agreement (since the document that was written was a complete falsehood)
11) [line 1] MODEH BI'SHTAR SHE'KASVO, EINO TZARICH L'KAIMO
12) [line 3] NITAN L'HIKASEV - it is permitted to be written
14) [line 13] NECHASIM BENEI CHORIN - (lit. properties that are free) fields that do not have a lien on them (which have not been bought by purchasers from the debtor)
15) [line 14] NICHA LEI D'LO NIKARYEI GAZLANA - it is pleasing to him that he not be called a thief
16) [line 14] D'LEIKUM B'HEIMNUSEI - that [his word] remain trustworthy (even though he stole the field, he wants others to trust his word, and therefore he is willing to pay money to buy the field from the original owner in owner to uphold his sale)
17a) [line 15] MEFAYEIS LEI L'MAREI - he will appease its original owner [and buy the
field from him]
18) [line 15] L'AVRUCHEI MINEI - to get it away from him (i.e. the owner of the field gifted the field to his son and then wrote a bill of sale on the field to his creditor; since his intention is to get the field away from the creditor, he certainly has no intention that the bill of sale should be upheld)
19) [line 16] EIN POSKIN AL HA'PEIROS AD SHE'YETZEI HA'SHA'AR - A futures contract may not be made until a market price has been established.
(a) Poskin Al ha'Peiros refers to a futures contract, in which a buyer pays for a set
amount of produce for delivery at a later date. If the market price of the produce
rises before that date, when the seller delivers the produce to the buyer (in the
amount that he bought at the earlier, lower price) it will appear that he is giving
extra produce in return for having the use of the buyer's money until the produce was
delivered. The Mishnah (60b) rules that this is prohibited mid'Rabanan because it is
like Ribis (Avak Ribis).
1. "YESH LO" - When the seller is presently in possession of the commodity which the buyer wants to receive at a later date, the sale is permitted. It is considered as though the produce of the seller has already been purchased by the buyer, and the seller is simply watching the produce for the buyer until the date of delivery. If the produce rises in value, it is considered to have risen in value while in the buyer's possession. RASHI (62a DH Yesh Lo) explains that the sale is considered to be consummated because as soon as the seller receives payment for produce that is in his possession, the Rabbinical curse of "Mi she'Para" (see Background to 44:9) prevents the buyer and seller from retracting from the sale. (Legally, of course, the produce does not formally belong to the buyer until he does a proper act of Kinyan, such as Meshichah. Nevertheless, since the prohibition involved in this transaction is only Ribis mid'Rabanan, the Rabanan did not apply the prohibition in a case where Mi she'Para has "guara20) [line 18] GADISH - stack of grain
21) [line 18] AVIT SHEL ANAVIM - a large basket in which grapes are collected before being pressed, in which they are allowed to heat and ripen (Rashi)
22) [line 18] MA'ATAN SHEL ZEISIM - a large basket or vat in which olives are collected before being pressed
23) [line 19] BEITZIM (alt. BITZIM) SHEL YOTZER - (a) lumps [of clay] of the potter, so called because they are in the shape of eggs ("Beitzim") (RASHI here); (b) raw clay of the potter, so called because it is like the soft ground, comprised of dirt mixed with water, of the marsh or swampland ("Bitzah;" O. F. maresc) (RASHI 74a DH d'Melafef). ("Beitzim" refers specifically to the potter's lumps of clay before he has given them any shape. "Bitzim" can refer to the raw clay even after the potter has shaped it into a vessel, but has not yet fired it in the kiln. Apparently, Rashi changed his explanation from "Beitzim" to "Bitzim" in order to reflect the Havah Amina and Maskana of the Gemara. According to the Maskana of the Gemara (74a), the lumps of clay cannot be more than two or three stages of production away from the finished pots in order to be permitted to buy the pots in a future's contract. Hence, the lumps of clay must have already been shaped into the shape of pots, and th us Rashi there explains it to mean "Bitzim," referring to raw clay (and not specifically to raw *lumps* of clay). -D. Z.))
24) [line 19] HA'SID MISHE'SHAK'O BA'KIVSHAN - the lime [stone] after he has lowered it into the kiln
25) [line 19] ZEVEL - garbage used for fertilizer
28) [line 23] EIN POSKIN AL SHA'AR SHEBA'SHUK - A futures contract may not be made based on the present price in the market (see above, entry #19)
29) [line 24] DURMUS - an immense marketplace (RABEINU CHANANEL in Shitah Mekubetzes); an immense meat market (RASHI)
30a) [line 25] LO KEVI'EI TAR'AIHU - their prices are not firmly established
31) [line 28] CHITEI D'ACHLAVEI V'ARBEI - wheat of the storehouses and boats (which come laden with wheat; at the time of their arrival, the market price for wheat becomes stabilized)
32) [line 28] MASHUCH TAR'EI TEFEI - its price endures much longer
34) [line 34] ZILA BEI MILSA - the thing is a disgrace to him (i.e. to borrow wheat from the poor gatherers)
35) [line 38] BENEI BEI RAV - members of the Yeshivah