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Bava Metzia 60

BAVA METZIA 60 - sponsored by Rabbi Dovid Hofstedter, Shlita, of Toronto, whose remarkable Harbatzas Torah -- and Dafyomi Shi'urim and Kollelim in particular -- are by now a Kidush Hashem that is familiar to Yeshiva students and Ba'alei Batim alike. May he and his family be blessed to continue their incredible work "until 120."

1) [line 1] B'EMES AMRU - (lit. in truth they said) it is an accepted Halachah. (According to the Yerushalmi (Shabbos 1:3), "b'Emes Amru" translates as "it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai." From the Rambam's introduction to Perush ha'Mishnayos, though, it may be inferred that this is true only when "b'Emes Amru" is stated in a Mishnah (as in our Mishnah), but not when it is mentioned in a Beraisa. Rashi to Sukah 38a DH b'Emes Amru applies the Yerushalmi's translation even to a "b'Emes Amru" that is mentioned in a Beraisa. Accordingly, it could mean "it is *as clear as* a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai" - see MAHARATZ CHAYUS to Beitzah 17a.) See below, entry #11.

2a) [line 2] KASHEH - (lit. hard) strong wine
b) [line 2] RACH - (lit. soft) mellow wine
3) [line 3] SHEMAREI YAYIN - lees/dregs of wine
4) [line 6] SHE'EINO ELA L'RAMOS (BO) - it is used only to cheat with it
5) [line 8] GERANOS - granaries (for the threshing and processing of wheat)
6) [line 8] MEGURAH - silo (for storage of wheat)
7) [line 9] GITOS - wine presses
8) [line 9] PITOM - cask (for storage of wine)
9) [line 13] L'YASHNAN - to age them
10) [line 15] ADA AMRAH - this proves

11) [line 16] HALACHAH HI - (a) it is an accepted and unquestioned Halachah (RASHI); (b) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Yerushalmi Shabbos 1:3, RABEINU CHANANEL and RAMBAM in his Introduction to Peirush ha'Mishnayos); (c) it is a Halachah d'Rabanan which is accepted as if it were a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (the Rash's explanation of the Yerushalmi Terumos 2:1)

12) [line 18] BEIN HA'GITOS SHANU - during the wine-pressing season (when the wine has not yet fermented)

13a) [line 26] SHEL EMESH - [the wine] of yesterday
b) [line 27] SHEL YOM - [the wine] of today. That is, wine from different barrels (even if they were actually produced on the same day) may not be mixed with each other.

14) [line 28] HA'SHOFEH YAYIN - one who pours wine
15) [line 31] MAZGEI - he diluted it
16) [line 31] LO HAVAH VASIM - it was not tasty
17) [line 31] SHADREI LA'CHANUSA - he sent it [back] to the store
18) [line 33] V'CHI TEIMA D'TAFI U'MECHAILEI U'MAZBIN LEI - and if you will say that he (the store owner) will add more [wine] and mix it in and then sell it (see Girsa of Rashi)

19) [line 36] KELAYOS - roasted kernels
20) [line 36] EGOZIN - nuts
21) [line 37] LO YIFCHOS ES HA'SHA'AR - he may not cause the market price to fall
22) [line 37] LO YAVOR ES HA'GERISIN - he may not separate the [refuse from the] beans (and charge extra for the labor)

23) [line 39] EIN MEFARKESIN - we may not beautify
24) [line 40] ANA MAFLIGNA AMGUZEI - I give out nuts
25) [last line] SHISKEI - (O.F. prunes) plums


26) [line 1] KA MARVACH L'SAR'A - he thereby benefits the market price (by causing others to lower their prices)

27) [line 5] EIN MESHARVETIN ES HA'BEHEMAH - we may not straighten [the hairs of] an animal (to make it look fatter than it really is)

28) [line 6] EIN NOFCHIN BI'KERAVAYIM - we may not bloat (by blowing into) the intestines (to make them look larger than they really are, when they are being sold in the slaughterhouse)

29) [line 7] EIN SHORIN ES HA'BASAR B'MAYIM - we may not soak meat in water (to whiten it, making it look like fat meat)

30) [line 8] MAYA D'CHIZRA - bran water (which bloats the animal)
31) [line 9] MAZKAFTA - (O.F. estreillier - to curry-comb, to rub down and clean an animal with a special comb) brushing [the animal's hair to make it stand up straight]

32) [line 9] SHMUEL SHARA L'MIRMA TUMEI L'SARBELA - Shmuel permitted one to place fringes (O.F. frenjes) on a coat

33) [line 10] L'CHASKUSEI KARMEI - (O.F. enpeser) to rub fine clothing [with bran water -- RASHI] in order to starch it

34) [line 11] L'MEIDAK TZERADEI - to beat canvas (hemp) apparel (so that their fibers appear finer)

35) [line 11] LITZLUMEI GIREI - to paint arrows
36) [line 12] LITZLUMEI DIKULEI - to paint baskets
37a) [line 15] CHADTEI - new ones (for which a person will pay extra when it is beautified)
b) [line 15] ATIKEI - old ones

38) [line 16] HA'HU AVDA SABA - that certain elderly slave. (According to RASHI, he was a Nochri. See, however, SHITAH MEKUBETZES.)

39) [line 16] TZAV'EI L'REISHEI UL'DIKNEI - he dyed [the hair of] his head and his beard
40) [line 18] ZIVNAN - buy me
41) [line 20] ASHKEYAN MAYA - bring water for me to drink
42) [line 20] CHAVREI - he whitened (he removed the dye from his hair)
43) [line 21] CHAZI D'ANA KASHISH ME'AVUCH - see that I am older than your father (and it is therefore not fitting for me to bring you water)

44) [line 22] "TZADIK MI'TZARAH NECHELATZ, VA'YAVO (ACHER) [RASHA] TACHTAV" - "The righteous one is removed from trouble, and the wicked one comes in his place." (Mishlei 11:8) - The verse actually reads, "va'Yavo *Rasha* Tachtav," but Rav Papa bar Shmuel, when he applied this verse to himself, certainly did not consider himself a Rasha for acquiring a Nochri slave instead of hiring a poor Jew. He therefore replaced the word "Rasha" with the word "Acher" ("... and *someone else* comes in his place...") when he applied the verse to himself.


45) [line 24] NESHECH / TARBIS (RIBIS)
(a) It is forbidden to lend money with interest (Shemos 22:24, Vayikra 25:36, Devarim 23:20). Even if interest is charged conditionally, and it is eventually not collected, the transaction is prohibited mid'Oraisa according to some Tana'im. It is also forbidden to take money in order to allow the borrower more time to complete the payment of the loan. (Such payment is known as "Agar Natar.")
(b) The Torah forbids lending with interest only if the rate or amount of interest was fixed at the time that the loan was made. This is called Ribis Ketzutzah. If interest was paid but the amount paid was not fixed at the time of the loan, or if a higher price was paid in a *sale* in order that the seller should allow the buyer more time to complete his payment for the purchase, it is called Avak Ribis or Ribis d'Rabanan. In addition to these, certain payments that are not actually Ribis mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan were prohibited because they have similarities to Ribis. Chazal refer to this as "Ha'aramas Ribis."

46) [line 24] HA'MALVEH SELA B'CHAMISHAH DINERIN - one who lends a Sela (equal to four Dinerim) with the condition that he receive five Dinerim in return (CURRENCY) (a) Equivalents of coins and amounts used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

  • 1 Sela = 2 Shekalin = 4 Dinerin = 48 Pundeyonin = 96 Isarin
  • 1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in = 12 Pundeyonin = 24 Isarin
  • 1/2 Dinar = Rova (1/4) Shekel = Sela Medinah
  • 1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonin
  • 1 Pundeyon = 2 Isarin
  • 1 Isar = 6-8 Perutos (based on Kidushin 12a)
(b) Another name for a Dinar of Kesef is a *Zuz*. All of the coins listed above are silver except for the Perutos, which are copper. (This is the ruling of most of the Rishonim. According to the ROSH 4:20, even the Pundeyonin and Isarin are copper.)
(c) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinerin. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13). Likewise, the Shekel to which our Gemara refers is worth half of a Sela or two Dinerin.

47) [line 25] MIPNEI SHE'HU NOSHECH - because he bites (taking interest from a borrower is akin to "biting" him, for it diminishes his assets)

See Background to Bava Metzia 40:6.

49a) [line 29] RIBIS D'ORAISA - see above, entry #45
b) [line 29] D'RABANAN - see above, entry #45
50) [line 32] OZFEI - he lent to him
51) [line 32] DANKA - a Me'ah, or 1/6th of a Dinar (see above, entry #46)
52) [line 33] KA NACHIS LEI - he is biting him (taking interest from a borrower is akin to "biting" him, for it diminishes his assets)

53) [line 37] CHUMSHA - 1/5th of a Dinar
54) [line 40] "ES KASPECHA LO SITEN LO B'NESHECH UV'MARBIS LO SITEN OCHLECHA" - "You shall not give to him your money with interest, and you shall not give your food for increase." (Vayikra 25:37)

55) [last line] "[LO SASICH L'ACHICHA,] NESHECH KESEF, NESHESH OCHEL, [NESHECH KOL DAVAR ASHER YISHACH]" - "[You shall not cause your brother to take interest,] interest for money, interest for food, [or interest of any object for which he might take interest]." (Devarim 23:20)

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