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Bava Metzia 58

1) [line 1] NISHBA'IN LA'GIZBARIM - they (the couriers appointed to bring the Shekalim from the donors to the Beis ha'Mikdash) must make a Shevu'ah to the treasurers of Hekdesh [that they were not negligent in guarding the Shekalim]

2) [line 1] NISHBA'IN LI'VNEI HA'IR - they must make a Shevu'ah to the people of the city (who donated the Shekalim) [that they were not negligent in guarding the Shekalim]

3a) [line 8] KI HEICHI D'LO NACHSHEDINHU - in order that they (the treasurers) not suspect them (of stealing the coins)
b) [line 9] KI HEICHI D'LO LIKRU LEHU POSH'IM - so that they (the treasurers) not call them negligent

4) [line 12] AGRAIHU - their wages
5) [line 13] NIGNEVU, B'LISTIM MEZUYAN - the case termed "Nignevu" actually refers to armed bandits, which is an Ones

6) [line 13] AVDU, SH'TAV'AH SEFINASO BA'YAM - the case termed "Avdu" actually refers to when his boat sank, which is an Ones

7a) [line 19] HE'AVUD - Shekalim that have been collected but have been lost
b) [line 19] HA'GAVUY - Shekalim that have been collected but are still on the way to the Beis ha'Mikdash
c) [line 19] HE'ASID LIGAVOS - Shekalim that have not yet been collected

8) [line 24] HA'SOCHER ES HA'PO'EL - one who hires a worker. This refers to the treasurer of Hekdesh who uses money of Hekdesh to hire workers for a purpose of Hekdesh (RASHI).

9) [line 24] LISHMOR ES HA'PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH / HAZA'AH) - to guard the cow
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
(c) Our Gemara discusses a case of workers hired with funds of Hekdesh to guard the Parah Adumah from anything that might cause it to have a blemish, and to ensure that no yoke is placed upon it.

10) [line 25] LISHMOR ES HA'TINOK - to guard the children. A group of young Kohanim were raised in a Tum'ah-free environment in which they were protected from becoming Tamei, so that they would be available to prepare and sprinkle, b'Taharah, the water which was sprinkled upon the Kohen for seven days prior to the Parah Adumah procedure to ensure that he remain Tahor (RASHI, based on Sukah 21a).

11) [line 25] LISHMOR ES HA'ZERA'IM - to guard the seeds. This refers either (a) to barley that was planted to be used for the Korban ha'Omer (which required barley that was specifically planted for that purpose) which needed to be guarded from animals, or (b) to barley that grew on its own during the Shemitah year which needed to be guarded in order to be used for the Korban ha'Omer (RASHI).

12) [line 26] SECHAR SHABBOS - a wage for service provided on Shabbos
13a) [line 27] SECHIR SHABBOS - a worker hired to do work for a week
b) [line 28] SECHIR SHAVU'A - a worker hired to do work for an entire Shemitah cycle (seven years)

14) [line 35] BESHE'KANU MI'YADO - when he made a Kinyan obligating himself [to pay if he fails in his Shemirah]

15a) [line 40] "BA'SH-M V'CHICHESH" - "[If a person sins, and commits treachery against] HaSh-m and lies [to his neighbor about an object that was delivered to him to guard...]" (Vayikra 5:21) - The student of Rebbi Yitzchak bar Aba understood that the Beraisa was reading this verse, "If a person sins, and commits treachery against HaSh-m and lies." That is, only when the Shomer lies about an object owned by Hekdesh does the law of the verse apply.
b) [last line] "BA'AMISO V'CHICHESH" - "and lies to his neighbor" (ibid.) This was understood to mean that when the owner has no responsibility for the object of Hekdesh, the Shomer is exempt from an Asham Gezeilos for swearing falsely. (The Gemara immediately points out the illogic of this.)

16) [last line] KELAPEI LAYA?! - Towards which direction is it turning? (The opposite would be reasonable!)


17) [line 1] ISAMYEI? - Should I remove it [from my compilation of Beraisa'os]?

(a) A person who steals money (or an object of monetary value) from a fellow Jew or denies owing him an object that was deposited in his care, and swears in Beis Din that he is not in possession of the money (and thereby exempts himself from paying), and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh -- an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value), and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement. The animal offered is a ram that costs at least two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:20-26).
(b) When Kodshim (such as an animal that a person dedicated to be brought as a Korban) for which the owner is obligated to compensate Hekdesh (if it is lost, stolen or dies; see Background to Bava Metzia 56:12:b) is deposited with a Shomer to guard and the Shomer swears falsely about what happened to the animal, the Shomer is obligated in the laws of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and must bring a Korban Shevu'ah (Asham Gezeilos). Even though the object is now owned by Hekdesh, since the owner is still responsible for it, the Shomer is Chayav.

b) [line 3] VESHE'EINO CHAYAV B'ACHRAYUSAN PATUR - When Kodshim (such as an animal that a person dedicated to be brought as a Korban) for which the owner is *not* obligated to compensate Hekdesh (if it is lost, stolen or dies; see Background to Bava Metzia 56:12:b) is deposited with a Shomer to guard and the Shomer swears falsely about what happened to the animal (see above, entry 18a:a), the Shomer is not obligated in the laws of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and is exempt from bringing a Korban Shevu'ah (Asham Gezeilos). Since the owner of the object has no responsibility for it, it is not considered his (and thus is exempted by the verse, "v'Chichesh *ba'Amiso*"), and thus the Shomer is exempt.

19) [line 8] EIN KETZ L'DAMEHA - there is no limit to its value
20) [line 10] L'ZAVGAN - to match them in pairs
21) [line 14] SAYIF - a sword
22) [line 14] CHATITUM - a shield
23) [line 21] "V'GER LO SONEH V'LO SILCHATZENU, KI GERIM HEYISEM B'ERETZ MITZRAYIM." - "You shall not deride and not oppress a stranger (convert), because you were strangers in the land of Egypt." (Shemos 22:20)

24) [line 22] "V'LO SONU ISH ES AMISO, [V'YAREISA ME'ELOKECHA.]" - "A person shall not deride his fellow man, [and you shall fear your G-d]." (Vayikra 25:17)

25a) [line 32] NEVEILOS
A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21). The flesh of a Neveilah is prohibited to be eaten, and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying).

b) [line 32] TEREIFOS
A Tereifah is an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year. (There are some sages who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year -- see Chulin 42a-b)

Sheratzim are forbidden animals and reptiles mentioned in Vayikra 11:29-30 (see Background to Shabbos 107:5). A Sheretz, even if it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) is an Av ha'Tum'ah. It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact). If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz, he can immediately go the Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

27) [line 37] "HA'LO YIRAS'CHA KISLASECHA, TIKVAS'CHA V'SOM DERACHECHA. ZECHOR NA MI HU NAKI AVAD; [V'EIFOH YESHARIM NICH'CHADU]" - "Was your fear [of Heaven] your foolishness (i.e. it was insincere), and your hope and the wholesomeness of your ways? Remember, please, who was the innocent person who perished, [and where are there upright people who were destroyed?]" (Iyov 4:6-7) - The friends of Iyov were telling him that had he been truly righteous, he would not have been afflicted with so much suffering.

28) [line 39] CHAMARIM - donkey-drivers
29) [line 41] LO YITLEH EINAV AL HA'MEKACH - one should not gaze at merchandise being sold [when he has no money with which to buy it]

30) [line 46] HA'MALBIN PENEI CHAVEIRO BA'RABIM - one who embarrasses (lit. whitens the face of) his fellow man in public

31a) [line 47] AZIL SUMKA - the red [color] leaves
b) [line 48] V'ASI CHIVRA - and white [color] comes
32) [line 48] B'MA'ARAVA - (lit. in the West) in Eretz Yisrael
33) [line 49] B'ACHVUREI APEI - [they are very cautious] with regard to embarrassing others (lit. with regard to whitening faces)

34) [line 51] HA'MECHANEH SHEM RA L'CHAVEIRO - one who gives a derogatory name/appellation to his friend

35) [last line] AF AL GAV D'DASH BEI BI'SHEMEI - even though he is accustomed to that name

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