POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Bava Kama 117
1) LEARNING FROM FINES
(a) Question: How do we know that one may not learn to other
cases from a fine?
2) SHOWING MONEY
(b) Answer #1 (Beraisa ): At first they used to say that one
is liable for making another's produce Tamei, or pouring
his wine to idolatry; later, they included Medame'a
(mixing Chulin with Terumah, forbidding it to a
1. Initially, Medame'a was exempt.
(c) Rejection: No - at first they were only fined when a
major loss resulted (Tamei Terumah and wine of idolatry
are forbidden to all); later, they fined even for a small
loss (a mixture of Terumah can be sold to a Kohen).
2. Suggestion: This is because making Tamei and pouring
libations are fines, we cannot learn to other cases
(of unnoticeable damage).
(d) Answer #2: R. Avin's father taught differently - at first
they used to say that Metamei and Medame'a are liable;
later, they included pouring to idolatry;
1. Initially, pouring to idolatry was exempt.
(e) Rejection: No - at first they held as R. Avin (as
follows); later, they held as R. Yirmeyah.
2. Suggestion: This is because Metamei and Medame'a are
fines, we cannot learn to other cases.
1. (R. Avin): Reuven threw an arrow 4 Amos in the
public domain on Shabbos; it tore silk along the way
- he is exempt for the silk, because the liability
for Shabbos depends on the initial thrust.
i. (We consider liability for Shabbos to begin
then, so he tore the silk as he was breaking
Shabbos - since he is liable to death for
Shabbos, he is exempt from all payments.
Similarly, liability for idolatry depends on
picking up the wine to pour it; we consider
liability for idolatry to begin then, so he is
exempt from all payments.)
2. R. Yirmeyah: From the moment he picks up the wine,
he is obligated to return it; he is not liable for
idolatry until he pours it.
(a) Nochrim forced Reuven to show them money (to take); he
showed them Shimon's money. Rav Huna bar Yehudah
obligated him to pay.
(b) Rava: Retract the ruling!
1. (Beraisa): Nochrim forced Reuven to show them money
(to take); he showed them Shimon's money - he is
(c) Nochrim forced Ploni to show them money; he showed them
Rav Mari's wine. They asked Ploni to help them carry it;
he complied. Rav Ashi exempted him.
i. If Reuven took the money and gave it to them,
he is liable.
ii. (Rabah): If he voluntarily showed them, that is
like taking the money and giving it to them.
(d) Question (Rabanan - Beraisa): If Reuven took the money
and gave it to them, he is liable.
(e) Answer (Rav Ashi): That is when Reuven brought them the
money; here, he only helped them once they already saw it
- it is as if they already took it.
(f) Question (R. Avahu - Beraisa): An extortionist told
Reuven 'Pass me a bundle of sheaves or a cluster of
grapes'; he passed it to him - he is liable.
(g) Answer (Rav Ashi): The case is, the extortionist was on
the other side of a river, he could not have taken it
1. Support: He said 'Pass me', not 'give me'.
(h) Reuven and Shimon each claimed to own a certain (bird or
fish) trap. Reuven handed it over to the king's officer.
(i) Abaye: We cannot make him pay - he claims, it was his!
(j) Rava: We don't allow him to do such a thing!
1. Rather, he is excommunicated until he brings the
trap to Beis Din so they can judge the case (even if
he must pay extra to get it back).
(k) Levi wanted to show Yehudah's straw (to extortionists).
Rav told him not to; he persisted, 'I will show'.
(l) Rav Kahana broke Levi's neckbone.
1. Rav: "...As a trapped wild ox" - just as a wild ox,
once it is trapped, no one has mercy on it - once
money of Yisrael falls into the hands of Nochrim,
they have no mercy on it.
(m) Rav: Until now, we were ruled by Persians, who did not
care about murder - but now the Yevanim rule, they object
1. You should go to Eretz Yisrael; accept on yourself
not to ask any questions of R. Yochanan for 7 years.
(n) Reish Lakish heard Rav Kahana in learning, and praised
him to R. Yochanan; R. Yochanan seated him in the front
1. As R. Yochanan taught, Rav Kahana kept silent; he
was successively moved back 7 rows, to the last row.
2. Rav Kahana considered this humiliation as equal to 7
years of not asking questions. He then asked on all
the teachings, stumping R. Yochanan. R. Yochanan
looked closer at the stunning Talmid; because of a
cut on Rav Kahana's lip, it looked like he was
laughing at R. Yochanan. R. Yochanan felt bad, and
Rav Kahana died.
3. When R. Yochanan learned about the cut, he went to
the cave where he had been buried. A snake was
guarding it; R. Yochanan could not enter until he
referred to himself as Rav Kahana's Talmid.
3) SAVING ONESELF WITH ANOTHER'S MONEY
4. R. Yochanan prayed, and Rav Kahana returned to life.
Rav Kahana answered all of R. Yochanan's doubts.
(o) Reuven showed R. Aba's silk ornament to extortionists.
(p) R. Avahu, R. Chanina bar Papa and R. Yitzchak Nafcha
thought that he is liable, as the following Mishnah.
1. (Mishnah): If a judge acquitted the guilty party,
obligated the exempt party, pronounced Tamei what
was really Tahor, or pronounced Tahor what was
really Tamei - what he did is done, and the judge
must pay (for any resulting loss).
(q) Rejection (R. Elazar): No - Rav taught, the Mishnah is
when the judge himself gave the money to the wrong party.
(r) R. Avahu, R. Chanina bar Papa and R. Yitzchak Nafcha (to
R. Aba): Go to R. Shimon ben Elyakin and R. Elazar, who
obligate one who damaged through Garmi (causation).
(s) R. Shimon ben Elyakin and R. Elazar: This is as our
Mishnah - if they took it on account of Reuven, he must
give another field to Shimon - and we established the
case as when he showed the field.
(a) Reuven had deposited a silver cup by Shimon. Robbers
came; he gave it to them. Rabah exempted him.
4) WHAT CAN BE STOLEN
(b) Objection (Abaye): But he saved himself with another's
(c) (Rav Ashi): If Shimon is wealthy - presumably, the
robbers came for his money (and he is liable for saving
himself with Reuven's money);
1. If Shimon is not wealthy - presumably, the robbers
came for Reuven's cup, Shimon is exempt.
(d) Reuven was holding a wallet with communal funds for
redeeming captives. Robbers came; he gave it to them.
Rabah exempted him.
(e) Objection (Abaye): But he saved himself with another's
(f) Answer (Rabah): The money was meant for redeeming
captives - he redeemed himself!
(g) Reuven had brought his donkey on a ferry. The ferry was
in danger of sinking; Shimon threw the donkey overboard,
and it drowned. Rabah exempted him.
(h) Objection (Abaye): But he saved himself with another's
(i) Answer (Rabah): Reuven was threatening their lives by
bringing the donkey aboard!
1. This is as Rabah taught elsewhere.
2. (Rabah): As Levi was chasing Yehudah to kill him, he
broke vessels - he is exempt, whether they belong to
Yehudah or to others, for he is liable to be killed
while he chases.
3. If Yehudah broke Levi's vessels, he is exempt -
since he may kill Levi, all the more so he may break
4. If Yehudah broke someone else's vessels, he is
liable - one may not save himself with another's
5. If David was chasing Levi to stop him from killing
Yehudah and broke vessels, whether they belong to
Yehudah or to others, he is exempt;
i. Letter of the law, he is liable; this is an
enactment, so people will not refrain from
trying to save a pursued person.
(a) (Mishnah): (Reuven stole Shimon's field and) the river
flooded it - Reuven can say, your field is in front of
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. Eliezer): (Reuven stole Shimon's
field and) the river flooded it - he must give him
1. Chachamim say, he can say, your field is in front of
(c) Question: On what do they argue?
(d) Answer: R. Elazar expounds through the method of
inclusions and exclusions;
1. "He will deny his neighbor" - this is an inclusion;
"by a deposit" - exclusion; "anything he will swear
about" - inclusion;
(e) Chachamim expound by the method of generalities and
2. From the inclusion, exclusion, inclusion we include
everything (that one must swear about them, and
return them if stolen), we only exclude documents.
1. "He will deny his neighbor" - this is a generality;
"by a deposit" - specific; "anything he will swear
about" - generality;
(f) Question (Beraisa - R. Elazar): Reuven stole a cow; a
flooding river washed it away -he must give him another
2. From the generality, specific, generality we include
everything similar to the specific - things that can
be moved and have intrinsic value;
i. We exclude land, for it cannot be moved, and
also slaves, for these are equated to land;
ii. We exclude documents, for these have no
1. Chachamim say, he can say, your cow is there.
(g) Answer (Rav Papa): The case is, he stole a field on which
a cow was lying.
2. Question: By a cow, on what do they argue?
1. R. Elazar holds that land can be stolen - Agav (by
way of this), the cow is also stolen.
2. Chachamim hold that land cannot be stolen, so the
cow is not stolen either.