POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Bava Kama 2
BAVA KAMA 2 - the opening Daf in Seder Nezikin has been dedicated
by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of
his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel,
whose Yarhzeit is tomorrow (10 Av).
1) THE PRIMARY DAMAGERS
(a) (Mishnah): There are 4 primary damagers: an ox, a pit,
Mav'eh (explained below), and fire.
2) THE SECONDARY DAMAGERS
1. The leniency of an ox is unlike that of Mav'eh, and
2. The leniency of these 2, which are alive, is unlike
that of fire, which is not;
3. The leniency of these 3, which move and damage, is
unlike that of a pit, which does not;
4. The common side of all 4: their nature is to damage,
you are obligated to guard them; if they damaged,
the damager must pay from highest quality land.
(a) (Gemara) Inference: If these are primary damagers, there
must be secondary damagers.
(b) Question: Are the secondary damagers like the primary
damagers or not?
1. (Mishnah): (Regarding Shabbos) there are 39 primary
Melachos; the secondary Melachos are like the
i. The punishment for either is stoning (if
intentional) or a sin-0offering (if
2. Question: What difference does it make if they are
primary or secondary Melachos?
3. Answer: If someone did 2 primary or 2 secondary
Melachos (unintentionally), he must bring 2
i. If he did a primary Melachah and a secondary
Melachah of that same Melachah, he only brings
4. Question: R. Eliezer says that in all cases, he
brings a sacrifice for every Melachah - how does he
explain the difference between primary and secondary
5. Answer: Those which were done in the Mishkan are
important, they are called primary; the others are
less important, they are called secondary.
6. (Mishnah): (Regarding Tum'ah) primary Tum'os
(include) rodents, semen, and a corpse.
3) KEREN AND ITS DERIVATIVES
7. The secondary Tum'os are unlike the primary Tum'os -
primary Tum'os impart Tum'ah to people and vessels,
secondary Tum'os do not.
(c) Answer (Rav Papa): Regarding damagers, some secondary
damagers are as the primary ones, others are not.
(d) (Beraisa): Three primary damagers pertain to an ox: Keren
(the horn, i.e. goring), Shen (eating) and Regel
(a) Question: From where do we know Keren?
(b) Answer (Beraisa): "When will gore" - goring is with the
1. We learn from "He made for him...horns...will these
you will gore Aram" and "...His horns, with them he
will gore nations".
(c) Question: What are the secondary damagers of Keren?
2. Question: Why is a second verse needed?
3. Answer #1: In case you will say that mid'Oraisa laws
are not learned from the prophets, we can learn from
a verse of the Torah.
i. Objection: We are not learning a law, just
clarifying that goring is with a Keren!
4. Answer #2: Rather, one might have thought that the
Torah only distinguishes between a tame animal and
an established gorer regarding detached horns - but
if the horns are attached, it is always considered
an established gorer;
i. "His horns..." teaches that this is not so
(because it mentions goring (in the same
language that the Torah distinguished between
tame and established gorers) with attached
(d) Answer: Pushing, biting, crouching and kicking.
(e) Question: Why is only goring primary?
1. If because it says "When will gore" - it also says
"When will push"!
(f) Answer: The latter verse also refers to goring.
1. (Beraisa): The Torah first says "Yigach (gore)" and
later "Yigof" to teach that both are the same.
(g) Question: Why does the Torah say "Yigach" by goring
people and "Yigof" by goring animals?
(h) Answer: Man has Mazal, so it says "Yigach" (he would not
be gored unless the animal intended); animals lack Mazal,
so it says "Yigof" (it could be gored without intention).
1. This teaches that an animal established to gore
people is established to gore animals, but not
(i) Question: Why is biting called a derivative of Keren - it
is a derivative of Shen (eating)!
(j) Answer: No - Shen is when the animal benefits; the animal
does not benefit from biting.
(k) Question: Why are crouching and kicking called
derivatives of Keren - they are derivatives of Regel
(l) Answer: No - Regel is common damage; crouching and
kicking are not common.