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Bava Kama 97

1) [line 2] HA'TOKEF - one who grabs (and takes)

2a) [line 11] BEISA MEISVA, YASIV - when a house is inhabited, it is in repair
b) [line 12] "[NISH'AR BA'IR SHAMAH;] U'SH'IYAH YUKAS SHA'AR." - "[In the city is left desolation,] and the gate is struck with destruction." (Yeshayah 24:12) It is beneficial to have a person living in a home that would otherwise be uninhabited, because the presence of the person prevents damage done by "Sh'iyah." "Sh'iyah" ("destruction") alludes to the name of a destructive demon.

3) [line 14] D'LO LISTEREI AVDEI - so that his slave not become weak

4a) [line 15] HAVU TAKIF AVDEI D'INSHEI D'MASIK BEHU ZUZEI - they were grabbing and taking as collateral the slaves of people who owed them money
b) [line 16] V'AVDEI BEHU MELACHAH - and they were having them (the slaves) do work for them (the value of the work that they did was not deducted from the amount of money that was owed)

5) [line 18] AVDA, NEHOM KREISEI LO SHAVI - a slave is not worth the bread of his stomach (i.e. the amount that it costs to support him) [and, therefore, the owner of the slaves suffered no loss]

6) [line 19] DARU AVDEI - Daru, his slave
7) [line 19] D'MARKID BEI KUVEI - who dances in stores (as a vocation)
8) [line 30] HADRI VI - I hereby retract my actions (lit. I change my mind)
9) [line 34] D'AVIDA L'AGRA - that is made to rent out


10) [line 2] MEISHAN - Meishan on the Euphrates. Meishan, or Mesene, is the island formed by the Euphrates, the Tigris and the Royal Canal (connecting them). In our Gemara, it is used as an example of any distant place.

11) [line 3] IS LEI ORCHA L'MEIZAL L'MEISHAN - he has an itinerary with a route which passes through Meishan

(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
(f) There are certain guidelines for the money that is used for redeeming the fruits of Ma'aser. Our Gemara teaches that the money must be of a currency that is in circulation in the place in which the owner and the fruits are located.

13) [line 7] KOZVIYOS YERUSHALMIYOS - (a) the coins minted by Ben Koziva (a.k.a. Bar Kochba), which were coins of Yerushalayim. (It is interesting to to note that although archeaologists have found thousands of ancient coins minted by Bar Kochba during his revolt against the Romans, only a single one of them was found in Yerushalayim -- implying that he did not succeed in wresting it from the holy city from Roman hands. If so, Rashi must mean that Bar Kochba's coins were referred to as "Yerushalmiyos" due to his aspirations to return control of Yerushalayim to the Jews and to rebuild the Holy Temple in Yerushalayim -MK); (b) alt. KOZVIYOS O YERUSHALMIYOS - the coins of Keziv, or the coins of Yerushalayim

14) [line 12] HEICHI MATZI MAMTI LEHU? - how are they able to bring them (the coins)?

15) [line 13] (D'MAMTI) [MAMTI] LEU AL YEDEI HA'DECHAK - they bring them clandestinely

16) [line 13] D'LO BACHASHEI; V'IY MASHKECHEI, KAPDEI - for they (the border guards) do not inspect; and if they do [inspect and] find (the coins), then they are strict

17) [line 21] HISKINU SHE'YEHU [KOL] HA'MA'OS YOTZ'OS B'YERUSHALAYIM MIPNEI CHACH - they enacted that all coins may be used as legal tender in Yerushalayim because of this (because of the different currencies being brought to Yerushalayim for the redemption of Ma'aser)

18) [line 27] MATBE'A SHEL AVRAHAM AVINU - the coin of Avraham Avinu (that he used)

19) [line 30] HOSIFU ALAV - they (the government) added to it (i.e. they added to the weight of the coin, making it have more value)

20) [line 32] AFILU KI NAFYA? - even if the size of the new coin is the size of a sieve?

21) [line 32] TARTIYA - [even if the size of the new coin is] the size of a Sela, which is the weight of a quarter of a Kav

22) [last line] IY MACHMAS TIV'A ZIL - if it is because of the increase to the value of the coins that the fruits decreased in price (and one is able to buy much more fruit with this coin than it was able to buy previously)

23) [last line] MENAKINAN LEI - then we must deduct from what is given to him

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