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Bava Kama 60

1) [line 1] SILTA - kindling wood
2) [line 1] [U']SHERAGA - (O.F. croisel - lamp) an earthenware oil lamp
3) [line 3] LO MISHTABESH - does not make a mistake, does not blunder
4) [line 5] "...B'LABAS ESH..." - "[And an angel of HaSh-m appeared to him in] a blowing flame of fire [within the thorn-bush, and he saw that the thorn-bush was burning on fire but the thorn-bush was not being consumed.]" (Shemos 3:2)

5) [line 6] "BOREI NIV SEFASAYIM..." - "I will create a new expression (blowing) of the lips; [Peace, peace for him who is far off and for him who is near, says HaSh-m; and I will heal him.]" (Yeshayah 57:19)

(a) There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah on Daf 73a.
(b) A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, *or* he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (Halachic stoning). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it. (According to Isi ben Yehudah, transgressing a particular *one* of the thirty-nine Melachos never results in Sekilah, but it is not known which one - Gemara and Tosfos DH Ha)
(c) The Av Melachah of Zoreh is winnowing, i.e. using the wind to separate wanted from unwanted objects, such as grain from chaff.

7) [line 13] TZAMRAH TZEMUREI - heat up [by blowing]

The Torah only forbids actions performed on Shabbos with intent, and not actions that were performed accidentally.

(a) There are two manners of causing indirect damage. The less direct manner is known as "Grama," for which even Rebbi Meir (Kesuvos 86a) does *not* hold a person liable. The more direct manner is known as "Garmi," for which Rebbi Meir holds a person liable. (The Rishonim argue as to the definition of "more direct.")
(b) A person who incites an animal to damage another person or animal is considered to have caused damage in an indirect manner, and is not liable for the damage caused, since "Grama b'Nezkin Patur."

10) [line 19] "KI SETZEI ESH, U'MATZ'AH KOTZIM, V'NE'ECHAL GADISH O HA'KAMAH O HA'SADEH; SHALEM YESHALEM HA'MAV'IR ES HA'BE'ERAH." - "If fire breaks out, and catches in thorns, so that the stacks of grain, or the standing grain, or the field, be consumed with it; he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution." (Shemos 22:5)

11a) [line 22] KOTZIM - thorns
b) [line 22] GADISH - a stack of grain stalks
c) [line 22] KAMAH - standing grain
d) [line 23] SADEH - a field

12) [line 29] UL'REBBI YEHUDAH D'MECHAYEV A'NIZKEI TAMUN B'ESH - and according to Rebbi Yehudah, who obligates one to pay for damages caused by his fire to another's items that were covered up. "Tamun" refers to something hidden. While the Halachic opinion is that one is liable for "Esh" only when it burns things that are not hidden or covered, Rebbi Yehudah argues.

13) [line 29] KOL BA'ALEI KOMAH - every thing that stands upright, such as living things and trees (RASHI)

14) [line 33] LICHECHAH NIRO - the fire parched his friend's plowed field
15) [line 33] SICHSECHAH AVANAV - the fire scorched his friend's stones

16) [line 39] "...V'ATEM LO SEITZU ISH MI'PESACH BEISO AD BOKER." - "[And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin;] and none of you shall go out from the door of his house until the morning." (Shemos 12:22) - This was part of the directive given to the Jewish people on the night before they were taken out of Mitzrayim, when HaSh-m smote the firstborn of the Egyptians.

17) [line 40] MASHCHIS - the destroyer
18) [line 42] BACHI RAV YOSEF - Rav Yosef cried
19) [line 42] KULEI HAI NAMI L'AYIN DOMIN?! - so much [righteousness of the Tzadikim] is considered comparable to nothing?!

20) [last line] "...KI MIPNEI HA'RA'AH NE'ESAF HA'TZADIK." - "[The righteous perish, and no man takes it to heart; and merciful men are taken away, none considering that] the righteous is taken away from the evil to come." (Yeshayah 57:1)


21) [line 1] L'OLAM YIKANES ADAM B'CHI TOV - a person should always enter the town when it is light (referring to the verse "va'Yar...Es ha'Or Ki Tov" - "And Elokim saw that the light was good..." (Bereishis 1:4))

22) [line 3] DEVER BA'IR, KANES RAGLECHA - when there is a plague in the city, bring in your feet (i.e. enter your homes and stay there)

23) [line 5] "LECH AMI, BO VA'CHADARECHA, U'SEGOR DELASECHA BA'ADECHA..." - "Come, my people, enter into your chambers, and close your doors behind you; [hide yourself for a little while, until the wrath has passed.]" (Yeshayah 26:20)

24) [line 6] "MI'CHUTZ TESHAKEL CHEREV UME'CHADARIM EIMAH..." - "The sword outside, and terror inside, [shall destroy both the young man and the young woman, the suckling also with the man of gray hairs.]" (Devarim 32:25)

25) [line 10] MI'GAVAI - from the inside [of the home]
26) [line 11] KI NAFIK YASIV BEINEI INSHEI B'TZAVSA B'ALMA TEFEI MA'ALEI - when one goes out and sits among other people in a group outside, it is more beneficial

27) [line 14] B'IDAN RISCHA - during a time of [Divine] wrath
28) [line 14] HAVAH SACHAR KAVEI - he would close his windows
29) [line 15] RA'AV BA'IR, PAZER RAGLECHA - when there is a hunger in the city, disperse your feet (i.e. leave your home and city)

30) [line 21] "LECHU V'NIPLAH EL MACHANEH ARAM; IM YECHAYUNU, NICHYEH" - "[If we say, 'We will enter into the city,' the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if we sit still here, we die also.] Therefore come, and let us go over to the camp of Aram; if they save us alive, we shall live; [and if they kill us, we shall but die.]" (Melachim II 7:4)

31) [line 24] YEHIVA LEI RESHUSA - permission is given to him
32) [line 24] MASGI L'HEDYA - he walks out in the open
33) [line 26] MECHAVEI CHAVUYEI U'MASGI - he hides himself and walks
34) [line 28] LO KARU VEI DARDEKEI - in which there are no young children reading verses of Chumash

35) [line 28] LO MATZLU VEI ASARAH - in which there are not ten men praying
36) [line 30] RAV YITZCHAK NAFCHA - Rav Yitzchak Nafcha (the blacksmith)
37) [line 31] SHEMA'TESA - Halachic teachings
38) [line 31] AGADETA - Aggadic (allegorical) teachings
39) [line 33] MELAKETES LO LEVANOS - plucks from him the white hairs
40) [line 34] KERE'ACH - bald
41) [line 34] EIMA LECHU MILSA D'SHAVYA LI'TERAVAICHU - I will say a teaching which is acceptable to both of you

42) [line 36] ANI HITZEISI ESH B'TZIYON - I ignited a fire upon Zion

Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree on the nature of the responsibility which the Torah places on a person regarding his fire; is one's fire considered like "Chitzav," his "arrow" (Kocho), or is considered his property (Mamono), just like a person's animal? Rebbi Yochanan says that since a person made a fire, it is as if he shot an arrow. Although actually shooting an arrow is "Adam ha'Mazik," and when a person damaged with his "Esh" he did not actually throw the fire, nor did the damage happen through the power of the person. Rather, the person is liable because we treat it as if the person shot an arrow. Therefore, the liability should be limited to a direct damage caused (and he should not be liable for indirect damage). Reish Lakish says that one's fire is like any other Mazik which one owns, like Keren, Shen, or Regel of his animal, and the person is held liable because he is responsible for the damages which his possessions cause.

44a) [line 38] "VA'YIS'AVEH DAVID VA'YOMAR, 'MI YASHKENI MAYIM MI'BOR BEIS LECHEM ASHER BA'SHA'AR!'" - "And David longed, and said, 'O that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Beis Lechem, which is by the gate!'" (Shmuel II 23:15)
b) [line 38] "VA'YIVKE'U SHELOSHES HA'GIBORIM B'MACHANEH FELISHTIM VA'YISH'AVU MAYIM MI'BOR BEIS LECHAEM ASHER BA'SHA'AR..." - "And the three mighty men broke through the army of the Pelishtim, and drew water from the well of Beis Lechem, that was by the gate, [and took it, and brought it to David; nevertheless he would not drink of it, but poured it out to HaSh-m.]" (Shmuel II 23:16)

45) [line 40] PASHTU LEI MAI D'FASHTU LEI - they answered him what they answered him

46) [line 41] MITAMREI - hiding

A king may break down a fence (or any other property) and no one may protest (i.e. he has the right of eminent domain).

48) [line 43] ADASHIM - lentils
49) [line 45] "CHAVOL YASHIV RASHA GEZEILAH YESHALEM..." - "If the wicked restores the pledge, gives back what he has robbed, [follows the statutes of life, without committing iniquity, he shall surely live; he shall not die.]" (Yechezkel 33:15)

50) [line 47] "...VA'TEHI SHAM CHELKAS HA'SADEH MELEI'AH ADASHIM..." - "[And after him was Shamah the son of Agei the Harari. And the Pelishtim were gathered together in a troop,] where there was a piece of ground full of lentils; [and the people fled from the Pelishtim.]" (Shmuel II 23:11)

51) [line 48] L'MIKLEI - to burn it
52) [line 49] "VA'YISYATZEV B'SOCH HA'CHELKAH VA'YATZILEHA..." - "But he stood in the midst of the ground, and he saved it, [and slew the Pelishtim; and HaSh-m wrought a great victory.]" (Shmuel II 23:12)

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