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Bava Kama 58

1) [line 3] MAVRI'ACH ARI MI'NICHSEI CHAVEIRO HU - he is merely chasing away a lion, i.e. he (in this case, the owner of the Chatzer) is helping someone (the owner of the ox) avoid a loss (by having the ox break its fall on his fruits), and one who helps someone avoid a loss cannot make a claim from the person he helped (since it is not considered monetary benefit to that person)

2) [line 4] MAVRI'ACH ARI MI'NICHSEI CHAVEIRO MI'DA'ATO HU, HAI LAV MI'DA'ATO - helping someone avoid a loss is not considered monetary benefit only when the person who prevented the loss does so willingly, but in this case, the owner of the Chatzer did not do so willingly (and therefore he should be able to make a claim for the damages done to his fruit)

3) [line 8] HUCHLEKAH B'MEIMEI RAGLEHA - it slipped on its own urine
4) [line 12] PASH'AH - the owner of the animals acted negligently
5) [line 13] IBA'I LACH ABUREI CHADA CHADA - you should have passed each animal one at a time (so that one would not push the other off of the roof or path)

6) [line 14] ARUGAH - a vegetable patch
7) [line 17] AD SHE'TETZEI V'SACHZOR L'DA'AS - until it (the animal) goes out and returns [to eat more from the Arugah] with the knowledge of the owner

8) [line 20] KEIVAN D'YALFA, KOL EIMAS D'MISHTAMTA, L'HASAM RIHATA - once the animal has learned [where it can find food], the owner must assume that whenever the animal gets out, it runs to there (to the food)

9) [line 22] MEI LEIDAH - the waters of birth (embryonic fluids)
10) [last line] LINTURAH - to guard it


11) [line 1] UL'ISTAMUREI V'GAVAH - and to be exceedingly careful with it

12) [line 3] MELAMED SHE'SHAMIN AL GAV SADEH ACHER - this teaches that we assess [the compensation for the damage done to the rows of crops in this field] based on the value of another field (that is, the compensation for the damage is measured by detracting the value of a Beis Se'ah of the damaged field from the value of a Beis Se'ah of a normal field (without damage), and the owner of the Shor must pay the difference)

13) [line 12] SE'AH B'SHISHIM SE'IN - [we assess the compensation owed for the damage to the field] by assessing the value of one Se'ah out of sixty Se'in (that is, we assess the value of a field of sixty Se'ah, and then we divide that value by sixty, and then we assess the value of one "wholesale" Se'ah after one of its rows has been damaged, and we subtract that value from the value of a normal "wholesale" Se'ah)
(a) A Beis Se'ah normally refers to a parcel of land in which a Se'ah of grain is planted. The area of a Beis Se'ah is 2,500 square Amos, approximately 576 square meters (6,200 square feet) or 829.43 square meters (8927.9 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
(b) According to TOSFOS (DH Shamin), the Beis Se'ah of our Mishnah and Gemara refers not to the amount of land in which a Se'ah of grain is planted, but to the amount of land from which a Se'ah of produce (i.e. six stalks) is harvested.

  • 1 Kur (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
  • 1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
  • 1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
  • 1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
  • 1 Tarkav (= 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
  • 1 Kav = 4 Lugin
  • 1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
  • 1 Beitzah = 2 k'Zeisim
  • 1 k'Zayis = approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.5 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Therefore:

  • 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters,
  • 1 Kur = 216, 248.7, or 432 liters.
14) [line 13] TARKAV - a contraction of the words "Trei v'Kav" = two [Kabin] and [one] Kav = 3 Kabin (approximately 3.6, 4.14 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

15) [line 14] KELACH - a stalk
16a) [line 15] KAV - one Kav
b) [line 15] KABAYIM - two Kabin

17) [line 19] BEIS KUR
The area of a Beis Kur is 75,000 square Amos, approximately 15,595.5, 17,280 or 24,883.2 square meters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

18) [line 28] HA'HU GAVRA D'KATZ KASBA ME'CHAVREI - a certain person cut down a date-palm tree that belonged to his friend

19) [line 29] REISH GALUSA - the Exilarch, the temporal leader of the Jews in Babylon

20) [line 30] TELASA TA'ALASA B'KINA HAVU KAIMEI - there were three date-palms standing together in one patch

21) [line 31] ZIL HAV LEI TELASIN U'SELASA U'SILTA - go pay him thirty-three and a third (33.3) Zuzim

22) [line 31] AMAR "GABEI REISH GALUSA D'DA'IN DINA D'FARSA'AH, LAMAH LI?" - he (the defendant) said, "Why must I be judged by a Reish Galusa who judges based on the law of the Persians?" (Alternatively: he said, "Why must I be judged by a Reish Galusa who judges a normal date-palm based on the value of a Persian date-palm (which is much more expensive)?" -TOSFOS)

23) [line 36] HA'MAVKIR KARMO SHEL CHAVEIRO SEMADAR - one who destroys the vineyard of his friend while the grapes were small (in their budding stage)

24) [line 40] KITMAH NETI'AH - an animal that cut down a sapling
25) [line 41] GOZREI GEZEIROS SHEB'YRUSHALAYIM - judges who have the authority to enact decrees regarding compensation for damages, who were in Yerushalayim. This refers to Admon and Chanan ben Avshalom, as mentioned in Kesuvos 105a.

26) [line 41] NETI'AH BAS SHENASAH, SHTEI CHESEF - a sapling that was one year old, one must pay two silver pieces

27) [line 43] CHAZIZ - (Shachas) grain in an early stage of growth, at which point it can be used as animal fodder, e.g. wheat grass

28) [line 44] NIDON BA'MESHUYAR SHE'BO - we judge it based on the remaining crops in the field (that is, we assess how much they will be worth when they are fully grown)

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