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Bava Kama 37

BAVA KAMA 37 - This Daf has been sponsored by Marcia and Lee Weinblatt of Teaneck, NJ, in honor of the marriage of their daughter, Jodi Weinblatt, to Yaakov Mugrabi, on Sept 2, 2001.

1) [line 3] CHANAN BISHA - "Chanan the Wicked"
2) [line 5] ZUZA MACHA - a battered Zuz coin that no longer contained the proper amount of silver

3) [line 6] LO HAVAH MISHTAKIL LEI - (lit. that could not be taken away from him) that he could not use as legal tender

4a) [line 8] L'MINO - for its kind, i.e. bulls
b) [line 9] LISHE'EINO MINO - for another type of animal, i.e. camels

5a) [line 17] V'EINO MU'AD TENAN - all phrases of the Mishnah are to be read with the letter Vav, e.g. "Shor she'Hu Mu'ad l'Mino *v'Eino* Mu'ad lishe'Eino Mino" - "A bull that has the status of Mu'ad for its type *and it is not* Mu'ad for other types of animals." That is, it is not a Mu'ad *only* for the types of animals that passed in front of it that it did not gore
b) [line 18] EINO MU'AD TENAN - all phrases of the Mishnah are to be read without the letter Vav, e.g. "Shor she'Hu Mu'ad l'Mino *Eino* Mu'ad lishe'Eino Mino" - "A bull that has the status of Mu'ad for its type *is not* a Mu'ad for other types of animals."

6) [line 30] PARATZ BEI - (lit. it made a breach through it) it reversed the order of things by goring it (the damaged animal)

7a) [line 52] SHIYULEI HU D'KA MESHAILEI LEI - they asked him a Halachic question in order that he render a decision
b) [line 52] V'HU NAMI KA'MEHADER LEHU - and he subsequently answered them

8) [line 53] AGMUREI HU D'KA MEGAMREI LEI? - Were they trying to teach him [the Halachah]?

9a) [line 55] PASKAH! - (lit. he stopped, he ceased) [the Tana] stopped [his phrase with a ruling that a bull that has the status of Mu'ad for its type *is not* a Mu'ad for other types of animals]
b) [line 55] MAI SU "ES SHE'MU'AD LO MESHALEM NEZEK SHALEM..." - Why [did he] further [continue with the phrase] "For those types for which it has the status of Mu'ad it pays full damages..."
c) [line 56] AD HASHTA LO ASHME'INAN DEHA'TAM MESHALEM CHATZI NEZEK U'MU'AD MESHALEM NEZEK SHALEM?? - Did we not already know that a Tam pays half of the damages and a Mu'ad pays full damages??

10) [line 57] RA'AH SHOR, NAGACH; SHOR, LO NAGACH; SHOR, NAGACH; ... - it (the Shor ha'Mazik) saw a bul and gored it. It next saw a bull and did not gore it. Then it saw a bull and gored it, etc.

11) [line 58] NA'ASEH MU'AD L'SEIRUGIN LI'SHEVARIM - it gets the status of a Mu'ad for goring bulls in intervals

12a) [last line] PERED - the mule
b) [last line] AROD - a wild desert donkey


13) [line 2] BASAR SHEVARIM SHADINAN LEI - do we group it (lit. throw it [together]) with the bulls

14) [line 22] RA'ASAH YOM 15 B'CHODESH ZEH (NIDAH)
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.

(a) A woman's Veses is the fixed monthly cycle when she usually menstruates. Every time a woman gets her period, she must consider that she may get her next period on the same date in the next month. On that day she is prohibited to her husband, whether she saw blood one or two times on that calendar date (Veses she'Eino Kavu'a) or three times in a row (Veses Kavu'a).
(b) The Gemara (Nidah 63 and elsewhere, see Chart there) lists various types of Vestos:

1. VESES HA'GUF - Bleeding that occurs along with sneezing, body-aches, etc. (Mishnah Nidah 63a)
2. VESES B'ONES (Circumstantial Veses), when the Ones does not directly cause the onset of the Veses (see TOSFOS to Nidah 63b DH Achlah) - Bleeding that occurs after eating garlic, onions or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b)
3. VESES B'ONES, when the Ones directly causes the onset of the Veses (ibid.) - Bleeding that occurs after jumping or other physical activities (Nidah 11a). (The Halachic ruling is that such a Veses must be coupled with another factor, such as the day of the week or month on which the Veses occurred, in order to establish a Veses (YD 189:17).
4. VESES HAFLAGAH (Intervals) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 20th of Nisan, 9th of Iyar and 28th of Iyar. Each of the three intervals is 20 days. (Note that blood must be seen *4* times to create this Veses.) (A Veses Haflagah occurs after a certain interval of *days*. However according to the understanding of at least one Acharon (Chidushei Hafla'ah beg. of YD 189), such a Veses can be established based on an interval of a set number of *hours* as well, such as a woman who sees blood every 600 hours.)
5. VESES HA'CHODESH (Calendar date) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 1st of Iyar and 1st of Sivan (Note that the intervals are not similar.)
6. VESES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK - e.g. seeing blood on Sunday, three weeks later on Sunday and three weeks later on Sunday. The day of the week fixes the Veses and therefore three times suffices to create a Veses (RAMBAN 64a citing TOSFOS).
(c) Each of the above Vestos can be expressed in a number of ways (a "sub-Veses"):
1. L'DILUGIN (Incremental) - Where the Haflagah, calendar date or day of the week *increases incrementally*, e.g. Haflagos of 11, 12 and 13 days.
2. L'SEIRUGIN (Alternating) - Where the Veses occurs every *other* time, e.g. every second Rosh Chodesh
3. L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - Where the Veses occurs at a certain *time of day*, e.g. eating garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF, beg. of YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH)
4. TZIRUF (Combination) - A Veses that is established by a *combination* of two factors (such as was described above, b3)
(d) There are two differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:
1. When a woman has a Veses Kavu'a, she is not Metamei me'Es l'Es (i.e. she does not become Teme'ah *retroactively* for 24 hours), whereas if she has a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a, some Tana'im rule that she is Teme'ah retroactively me'Es l'Es.
2. According to the opinion that "Vestos are mid'Oraisa" (Nidah 16a), when a woman has a Veses Kavu'a and she did not do an internal examination on that date, but rather afterwards, even if she found no blood, she is nevertheless Teme'ah.
16) [line 25] AD SHE'TESHALESH B'DILUG - until she sees blood after three consecutive incremental intervals

17) [line 28] SIYUTA B'ALMA HU D'NAKTEI - it was just a fright that gripped him (causing him to gore)

18a) [line 30] SHOR SHEL HEKDESH - a bull that belongs to Hekdesh (sanctified to be the property of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
b) [line 31] SHOR SHEL HEDYOT - a bull that belongs to a common man

19) [line 31] "[V'CHI YIGOF SHOR ISH ES] SHOR RE'EHU..." - "[And if one man's bull hurts] the bull of his friend, [that it die; then they shall sell the live bull, and divide its value; and the dead bull also they shall divide." (Shemos 21:35)

20) [line 33] KENA'ANI - (lit. a Canaanite) a Nochri
21) [line 45] DAYO LA'BA MIN HA'DIN LIHEYOS KA'NIDON - it is sufficient to give the Halachah learned from a Kal va'Chomer the exact status of the Halachah from which it was learned.

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