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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 53


(a) On Motza'ei Shabbos, may one use a light that a non-Jew lit, after Shabbos, from the light of a Jew (or vice-versa) for Birchas ha'Ner?

(b) In the case of a Jew lighting from a non-Jew, why can the reason for the Heter not be because the old light has gone, and this is a new light (from a Tosefta in Shabbos)?

(c) Then why *is* it permitted on Motzei Shabbos?

(d) In that case, why may one not use a light which one non-Jew lit from that of another?

(a) May one recite Birchas ha'Ner over a light that one sees burning outside the town?

(b) What if half the population are Jews and the other half are not?

(c) In that case, why does the Seifa of the Beraisa write 'Im *Rov* Yisrael, Mevarech'?

Also included in the Beraisa is the case of someone who meets a child holding a lamp, in which case, one is obligated to ask him whether he is a Jew or not. Depending on his answer, one will be either permitted, or forbidden, to use his lamp.
(d) Why does the Beraisa pick the case of a child? Why not a grown-up?
3) One cannot recite the Berachah over a light that is less bright than that which emanates from a furnace.
(a) Why not?

(b) When is the 'Or shel Kivshan' eligible for Birchas ha'Ner, when is it not, and why not?

(c) Why can one not use the light in Shul, when there is a prominent person there?

(d) Under which circumstances is it nevertheless permitted to use it?

(e) And when may one not use it - even when there *is* a Shamash there?

4) Beis Hillel maintain that, when they bring a lamp into the Beis Hamedrash after nightfall on Motza'ei Shabbos, one person recites the Berachah on behalf of everybody. According to Beis Shamai, each person recites his own Berachah.
(a) What are their respective reasons?

(b) What does Rabban Gamliel say that one should not do, on account of Bitul Beis ha'Medrash?

(a) Why may one not use a lamp that was lit for a dead person, for Havdalah?

(b) When would such a lamp be permitted?

(c) Why does one not recite a Berachah over Besamim that have been designated for a dead person?

6) One does not recite a Berachah over Besamim that was designated for a bathroom.
(a) Why then, does recite one over spices in a spicery, which would appear to be there in order for the spicer to make profit, but not to smell?

(b) When does one recite only *one* Berachah over the spices in a spicery, and when does one recite *two*?

(c) When does one recite 'Borei Shemen Areiv' over aromatic oil, and when 'Borei Atzei Besamim'?

7) According to the Tana Kama, if someone who is walking outside the town, smells the aroma of Besamim, it will depend upon whether the majority of the town's inhabitants are Jews or non-Jews, as to whether he must recite a Berachah or not. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that even if the majority are Jews, he will still not recite a Berachah over them.
(a) Why not?
In Teverya, they used to spice their clothes every Friday afternoon, and in Tzipori, every Motza'ei Shabbos.
(b) What is the Din regarding the Berachah, if one smelt the spices that were used for that purpose?

(c) What does the Beraisa say about someone who walks through a gentile market?

Answers to questions


8) Rav Yehudah quoting Rav, interprets our Mishnah to mean, that even if one is far away, one recites Birchas ha'Ner, as long as the light is sufficiently bright for him to benefit from, if he were standing close.

(a) Then what does the Beraisa mean when it writes that one may not recite a Berachah over a light which he saw, but from which he did not benefit?

(b) And what does the Beraisa mean by a light from which one derived benefit, but did not see (which is also not eligible for Havdalah)?

One may recite Birchas ha'Ner over 'Gechalim Lochshos', but not over 'Gechalim Omemos'.
(c) What are these, and how does one gauge whether the coals are still in the category of 'Lochshos' or not?

(d) What does the Gemara prove from the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Arazim Lo Amemuhu ke'Gan Elokim"?

9) Rava disagrees with Rav Yehudah.
(a) How does *he* interpret the words in our Mishnah 'Ad she'Ya'osu le'Oro'? What degree of light is required to be able to use the light?
Rav Yehudah recited a Berachah over a light outside the house of Ada Dayla, and Rava recited a Berachah outside that of Gurya bar Chama.
(b) What is the significance of those two statements? Did they both do the same thing?

(c) To what extent does one need to search for a light on Motza'ei Shabbos?

10) According to Beis Shamai, someone who forgot, and left the house before having Bensched, is obligated to return to where he ate in order to Bensch. According to Beis Hillel, he may Bensch wherever he now is.
(a) Does this Machlokes apply even when he left his place deliberately?
The Gemara thought that maybe it does.
(b) Then why did the Tana write 'and he forgot'?
Beis Hillel asked Beis Shamai whether someone who ate on the rooftop of his palace, forgot and descended is obligated to climb up to the roof to Bensch (he seems to have taken it for granted that even Beis Shamai will agree that he is not).
(c) What was Beis Shamai's response to this question?
There were two Talmidim, one who followed the opinion of Beis Shamai, and the other, of Beis Hillel.
(d) What exactly did they do, and what happened to them?
11) Rabba bar bar Chana's coach was about to leave, when he remembered that he had not yet Bensched.
(a) What was his dilemma?

(b) What did he decide to tell his fellow passengers and what happened to him?

(c) Why did he choose to mention a golden dove of all things, and what is the significance of that comparison?

12) Our Mishnah gives the time-limit for Bensching as 'Ad Kedei she'Yis'Acheil ha'Mazon', which Resh Lakish interprets to mean - as long as he is still thirsty on account of what he ate.
(a) How do we reconcile this with the four Milin (72 minutes) that Rebbi Ami quotes him as saying?

(b) How does Rebbi Yochanan explain 'Ad Kedei she'Yis'Acheil ha'Mazon'?

13) Our Mishnah obligates one to answer 'Amen', even though he heard only the end of the Berachah.
(a) How can one be Yotze a Berachah that one hears from someone else without hearing the entire Berachah?
Rav and Rav Huna both instructed their sons to try and obtain the Kos shel Berachah in order to Bensch. But that is not the opinion of Rebbi Yossi (the Tana).
(b) What does Rebbi Yossi say?

(c) What proof does Rebbi Nehorai bring for Rebbi Yossi's opinion?

(d) How does the Gemara resolve this Kashya on Rav and Rav Huna?

(a) Does one answer 'Amen' after the Berachah of a child who makes a Berachah?

(b) What is the meaning of 'Shemen Me'akev es ha'Berachah'?

(c) How do we Darshen the Pasuk in Vayikra "1. ve'Hiskadishtem"; 2. "vi'Heyisem Kedoshim"; 3. "Ki Kadosh Ani"; 4. "Ani Hashem Elokeichem"?

Hadran Alach, 'Eilu Devarim'!

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