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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 45

'Perek Sheloshah she'Achlu'.


(a) What is the difference between two people who ate together and three people who ate together?
The Mishnah lists various cases of people who seemingly ate ba'Aveirah, and nevertheless combine for a Mezuman.
(b) What is the Chidush in all these cases?

(c) How much must one have eaten in order to Bensch Mezuman?

2) Rav Asi learns 'Mezuman' from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Gadlu la'Hashem Iti" etc.
(a) From which Pasuk in Devarim does Rebbi Avahu learn it?

(b) What else do we learn from "Gadlu la'Hashem *Iti*" (or perhaps it is from the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Neromemah Shemo Yachdav")?

(c) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Shemos "Moshe Yedaber, ve'ha'Elokim Ya'anenu be'Kol", and how do we learn it from there?

(d) What should the speaker do if he knows that the translator is unable to speak as loudly as he does?

3) Rebbi Yochanan and Rav argue about whether two people who have eaten together are permitted to Bensch Mezuman, or not.
(a) How does the one who says that they *are*, explain our Mishnah, which writes 'Sheloshah she'Achlu ke'Achas, Chayavin le'Zamein', implying that three people Bensch Mezuman, but not two?
The Gemara asks on him from a Beraisa, which writes that three people who ate together are forbidden to separate - but are obligated to Bensch together with a Mezuman?
(b) What is the Kashya on this opinion from there?

(c) How does he answer the Kashya?

(d) And what does he do with the Beraisa, which permits a Shamash to join the two people whom he is serving, even though he has not been invited to do so (something which he is not permitted to do when there are three), only because we take for granted the fact that they are more than pleased to have a Mezuman. But why should they be pleased, if they can Bensch Mezuman anyway?

Answers to questions



(a) Since a hundred women have no more obligation to Bensch Mezuman than two men, how will the opinion which holds that two men are *not* permitted to Bensch Mezuman, explain the Beraisa, which writes that a group of women *is*?

(b) Why are a group comprising women and slaves not permitted to Bensch Mezuman together?

Rav says that if oneperson out of a group of three left the group, one calls him to participate in the Mezuman - there where he is. This implies that, if he does not answer, the remaining two are not permitted to Bensch Mezuman without him.
(c) Does this prove that Rav is the one to say that two people may not Bensch Mezuman, even if they want to?
Rebbi Yochanan says that if two people ate together, one can be Yotze with the Bensching of the other.
(d) What does the Gemara prove from here?
5) The Rabbanan who came from Eretz Yisrael taught, that two people who ate together, are permitted to Bensch Mezuman.
(a) How does this clash with what we just concluded?

(b) Whom *were* the Rabbanan from Eretz Yisrael quoting?

We learnt earlier, that if one person leaves a group of three, they call him to answer there where he is.
(c) Will this also apply to the tenth person out of a group of ten? If not, why the difference?
Rav Ashi however, does not agree with this. According to him, the reverse is more logical.
(d) Why is that?
(a) What is the meaning of 'Mitzvah Leichalek', and to what does it refer?

(b) When does it *not* apply?

(a) When must one stop eating to answer Mezuman, and when is this not necessary?

(b) Why did Rav Papa and a friend stop eating for Aba Mar, Rav papa's son?

(a) Why did Yehudah bar Mereimar, Mar bar Rav Ashi and Rav Acha mi'Difti not Bensch Mezuman, although they had eaten together?

(b) What did Mereimar tell them?

(c) Why did they not recite Mezuman there and then?

(a) What does someone who did not eat, answer, if he hears three people Bensching Mezuman?

(b) Why did Rav Papa say that one answers 'Amen'?

10) One Beraisa praises someone who answers 'Amen' after his own Berachos, another Beraisa writes that this is despicable.
(a) How do we reconcile these two Beraisos?
Abaye would say the 'Amen' after 'Bonei ve'Rachamav Yerushalayim' aloud, Rav Ashi would say it quietly.
(b) What is each one's reason?
Answers to questions

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