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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 36

1) According to Rav Yehudah, over flour made from wheat, one recites 'Borei Pri ha'Adamah'.

(a) What does Rav Nachman hold in this case, and why should this Din be any different than olive-oil, which retains its original Berachah in spite of the fact that it has changed its format?

(b) If, even over wheat-flour, the appropriate Berachah is 'Shehakol', then why does Shmuel say that over *barley*-flour one recites 'Shehakol' (implying that over wheat-flour one recites 'Adamah')? Why did he not say *wheat*-flour?

(c) Why would it have entered our minds to say that barley-flour should be worse than salt-water, over which one recites 'Shehakol'?

2) Young palm-branches are edible, which is why, according to Rav Yehudah, one recites 'Adamah' over them.
(a) Why does Shmuel hold hat one recites only 'Shehakol'?

(b) Which Berachah does one recite over a radish (which would also have become hard had it been left in the ground), and why is a young Lulav-branch different than a young radish in this regard?

(c) Which Berachah does one recite over the leaves and berries of a caper-tree?

(d) And according to the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer (who is strict regarding Ma'asros and Orlah), which Berachah does one recite over its fruit and peel?

(a) According to which Tana does Rav permit one to eat the outer peel of a caper-fruit of Orlah, and why?

(b) Why did Rav not simply say 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Akiva'?

(c) So why did he not then say 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Akiva be'Chutzah la'Aretz, de'Chol ha'Meikil ba'Aretz, Halachah Kamoso be'Chutzah la'Aretz'?

When Ravina found Mar bar Rav Ashi eating the peel of the caper-fruit and throwing away the fruit, he asked him why he did not rely on Beis Shamai (in Chutz la'Aretz), who is lenient in Eretz Yisrael.
(d) What did he mean?

(e) How does the Gemara answer this Kashya?

Answers to questions



(a) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Vayikra "va'Araltem Orlaso *es* Piryo"?
On the one hand, the hair in the crown of the pomegranate peel is Chayav Orlah; on the other, it does not combine with the pomegranate, to make up a Shiur Ochel regarding Tum'as Ochlin.
(b) Why the difference?

(c) Why does the former Din leave us with a Kashya on the Gemara's contention that the peel of the caper-fruit is not considered a Shomer, because it falls off after the fruit has been detached.

(d) Then why is the outer peel of the caper-fruit not considered a Shomer?

(a) In light of what we just concluded, how do we initially explain Rav Nachman quoting Rabah bar Avuha, who says that the outer shell of the date (which, like the outer peel of the caper-fruit, tends to fall off before the fruit is ripe) is forbidden because of Orlah, since it is a Shomer to the fruit? What does Rebbi Yossi say?
According to Beis Hillel, grapes are Asur because of Shmitah when they reach the stage of Giru'a.
(b) What is that the equivalent of, and how do now know that the author of this Mishnah (in Shevi'is) is the Rabbanan of Rebbi Yossi?

(c) What does the Gemara then go on to prove from the same Mishnah, which writes that all other fruit is Asur from the time that the fruit is first formed? How does that refute our initial answer in (a)?

(d) How does the Gemara finally resolve the problem with the peel of the caper-fruit: namely, why is it not considered a Shomer, regarding the Din of Orlah (and presumably, regarding the Berachah of 'ha'Eitz', too)?

(a) What does Rava hold regarding chewing peppers or ginger on Yom Kipur?

(b) How do we reconcile this with the Beraisa, which learns from "Eitz Ma'achal" that peppers are called fruit, and are therefore included in the Din of Orlah?

(c) Which Berachah does one recite over wet and dry ginger respectively?

(a) Why, according to Rav Yehudah, is the Berachah over Chavitz Kedeira (a mixture of flour, honey and oil which, after being allowed to congeal, is then cooked), 'Shehakol'?
The Halachah is like Rav Kahana.
(b) What does Rav Kahana say, and why is the Halachah like him?
Rav and Shmuel actually issue two rulings:
1. Anything which contains the five types of grain ...
2. Anything that is from the types of grain ...
... requires the Berachah of 'Mezonos'.
(c) Why are both rulings necessary?
Answers to questions

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