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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 25

1) Rav Huna and Rav Chisda dispute whether someone who has excrement on his skin may recite the Shema.

(a) What does Rav Huna learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Kol ha'Neshamah Tehalel Kah"?

(b) And what does Rav Chisda learn from "Kol Atzmosai Tomarna, Hashem"?

Rav Huna requires a person to move four Amos away from excrement which smells.
(c) What does Rav Chisda say about that?

(d) What is the Din if the excrement is lying *in front* of him?

(a) When is it permitted to sit beside excrement and to recite the Shema or the Amidah?
The Beraisa forbids a person to read the Shema within four Amos of the Tzo'ah of humans, of dogs, of Chazeirim or of chickens.
(b) In which point does Rava rule against this Beraisa (on the basis of another Beraisa)?

(c) When *is* the Tzo'ah of dogs forbidden?

They asked Rav Sheishes what the Din will be about reciting the Shema or learning Torah beside a smell which has no tangible source.
(d) What did he answer?
3) Abaye tries to prove that passing Tzo'ah should be permitted, from the Din of a passing Metzora.
(a) On what grounds does Rava reject Abaye's proof?
Rav Papa says that the mouth of a passing Chazir has the same Din as passing Tzo'ah.
(b) What is the Chidush?
Rav Yehudah says that it is forbidden to recite the Shema in a case of Safek Tzo'ah, but not in a case of Safek urine.
(c) What is the source of this difference (based on the Pesukim of "Yad" and "Yased" respectively)?
The second Lashon of the Gemara adds the Din of an Ashpah.
(d) In which point does the second Lashon differ from the first?
4) Geniva quotes Rav as saying that one may not recite the Shema in front of urine as long as its mark can still be seen on the ground.
(a) What do the other Amora'im hold in this matter?
Rav Yosef rejects Rav's ruling, on the grounds that the Din of urine can hardly be more stringent than that of excrement,where Rav himself said that the moment excrement forms a crust, it is permitted to recite the Shema in front of it.
(b) How does the Gemara rebuff Rav Yosef's refutal of Rav?

(c) What are the two interpretations of 'Yavesh ka'Cheres', and what is the third Shiur of 'Miflai Aflui'?

(d) What is the Gemara's conclusion regarding the Shiur of both Tzo'ah and urine?

5) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa permits urine which spilt, if it became absorbed, but forbids it as long as it did not. Rebbi Yossi says 'as long as it is wet' (it is forbidden).
If they do not argue about urine whose mark is still recognizable (which the Tana Kama forbids, and Rebbi Yossi permits - provided it is no longer wet), then what *is* the basis of their Machlokes?

Answers to questions


6) Our Mishnah teaches that someone who is Toveling must hurry to recite the Shema by sunrise.

(a) Is this a proof for Rebbi Eliezer, who gives sunrise as the final time to recite the Shema?
Whether or not, someone who is Toveling needs to stir the water with his feet, depends on whether one may Daven when the heart can see the Ervah.
(b) May one recite the Shema if the heel or any other limb in the body can see the Ervah?
According to the second Lashon, it is unanimously forbidden to recite the Shema, if the heel is touching the Ervah. But if it can only see the Ervah, Abaye and Rava argue.
(c) What is Rava's reason for being lenient?

(d) What is the difference between Tzo'ah that can be seen through a glass, and Ervah - and what is the basis of that difference?

(a) Short of actually removing it or covering it, how can one easily dispense with the problem of a small amount of Tzo'ah, if one wants to recite the Shema?

(b) And what could one do if the Tzo'ah was in a hole in the ground?

(c) What will be the Din if the Tzo'ah is stuck to the sole of his shoe?

Rav Yehudah forbids one to recite the Shema in front of a naked gentile.
(d) Why does Rav Yehudah mention specifically a gentile and not a Jew?
8) According to the Tana Kama, it is sufficient to add a Kol Shehu to urine, to permit the recital of the Shema. Rebbi Zakai requires a Revi'is.
According to Rav Nachman, they argue about adding water; but if the water was there first, they both agree that a Kol Shehu will suffice.
(a) What does Rav Yosef hold in this matter, and what did he tell his Sha'mes to do, when he wanted to urinate?

(b) May one recite the Shema in front of an empty G'raf shel Re'i and an Avit shel Mei Raglayim, why, and out of what are they made?

9) The Tana Kama holds that one may not recite the Shema in front of a Graf shel Re'i etc., whether they themselves, are in front of the bed or behind it.
Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permits one to recite the Shema if one distances oneself four Amos away from them.
(a) Which case is he referring to, to when they are behind the bed (but in front, distancing oneself does not help), or to when they are in front of the bed (but when they behind, one may read right up to the bed)?
The Gemara resolves this Sha'aleh from a second Beraisa, which conforms with the second side of the Sha'aleh.
However, this Beraisa quotes this opinion in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, and then goes on to quote the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Elazar of the first Beraisa in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.
(b) How does the Gemara resolve this discrepancy?
(a) May one recite the Shema if their is a G'raf shel Re'i under a bed of no more than three Tefachim tall, and why is that?

(b) What will be the Din if the bed is ten Tefachim tall?

(c) What if the bed is between three and ten Tefachim?

11) Rav Achai's son had problems in consummating his marriage.
(a) To what did Rav Achai ascribe the problem, even going so far as to accuse his Mechutan of almost causing his son's death?
The Gemara gives three possible alternatives of what to do with a Seifer-Torah if one wishes to make Tashmish?
(b) What are they, and what is their order of priorities?

(c) Is a coat spread over a cupboard called a 'Kli be'Soch Kli'?

Answers to questions

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