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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 23

1) The Tefilah of someone who needs to relieve himself and Davens is an abomination.

(a) When is that?

(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Amos "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael"?

(c) And how does the Gemara finally explain the Pasuk in Koheles "Shemor Raglecha, Ka'asher Teilech el Beis ha'Elokim, ve'Karov li'Shmo'a, mi'Teis ha'Kesilim Zevach, Ki Einam Yod'im La'asos Ra"?

(d) How does Rav Papa explain the Pasuk to conform with our Sugya of Tefilah?

2) Someone who enters a 'bathroom' (in the field) must remove his Tefilin at a distance of four Amos.
(a) When does this speak?

(b) What must one do if one is using that location as a 'bathroom' for the first time?

(c) What two possible reasons could there be for prohibiting entry into a used 'bathroom' wearing one's Tefilin, even to urinate?

3) According to Beis Shamai, one leaves one's Tefilin on the window-sill of a *used* 'bathroom', facing the street.
(a) Why not on the inside?

(b) What do Beis Hillel say to that?

Rebbi Akiva says that one holds them in one's clothes.
(c) What is the problem with that, and what does he really mean?

(d) Where does he put them according to Rebbi Akiva, and why does he not place them *outside* - like Beis Shamai?

(e) What prompted the Chachamim to make such a Takanah?

4) According to the latter Beraisa, they instituted that one should enter the 'bathroom' holding them in one's hand.
(a) What does Rav Meyashe the grandson of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi comment on this?

(b) What care must one then take regarding the straps?

This applies only when there is still time to put the Tefilin back on afterwards.
(c) What does he do if there will not be time?

(d) What is the difference whether the vessel into which he places them at night (in the bedroom) is their regular covering or not, and why the difference?

(a) What is the proof from little earthenware jars, that even less than a Tefach is considered an Ohel?
Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Nachman would give their Seifer de'Agadta to their disciples before entering the bathroom.
(b) Why did they not do likewise with their Tefilin?
Answers to questions


6) Why is holding Tefilin in one's hand whilst ine is sleeping prohibited?


(a) Why is one not permitted to hold a Seifer-Torah or Tefilin whilst Davening the Amidah?
It is also forbidden to hold a knife, money, a dish with food, or a loaf of bread during Davening?
(b) Why is that?
The Beraisa also forbids one to urinate whilst holding Tefilin.
(c) Why did Rava think that this is not the Halachah?
The Gemara disproves Rava with a Beraisa, which states 'Devarim she'Hitarti Lecha Kahn, Asarti Lecha Kahn'.
(d) What does this mean?
8) The Gemara suggests that maybe the Beraisa in the previous question is referring to the revealing of two Tefachim.
(a) What will the Beraisa then mean?

(b) What is wrong with this explanation?

The Gemara then suggests that both are referring to the need to relieve oneself, but one speaks about men and the other about women.
(c) What will the Beraisa then mean?

(d) How does the Gemara finally reject this explanation too (to leave us with the above-mentioned Kashya on Rava), from the closing words of the Beraisa 've'Zehu Kal va'Chomer she'Ein Alav Teshuvah'?

(a) Now that we learn the Beraisa according to Beis Hillel, who permit holding one's Tefilin in a Beis-ha'Kisei Kavu'a, but not in a Beis ha'Kisei Arai, what do we do with the 'Kal va'Chomer she'Ein Alav Teshuvah'?

(b) What should a person do to avoid having to relieve himself in the middle of a meal?

Rav Yitzchok says that before going to eat a Se'udas Keva, one should remove one's Tefilin.
(c) What does Rebbi Chiya hold, and why?
10) One Beraisa permits the wrapping of one's money together one's Tefilin in a bag (though in two separate knots); another Beraisa forbids it.
(a) How do we reconcile the two Beraisos?

(b) According to Rav Chisda (who holds that 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa Hi'), under which conditions will a bag become Asur to use for mundane objects?

(c) In which point does Abaye disagree with Rav Chisda?

11) When one goes to sleep, it is forbidden to place one's Tefilin by one's feet, because it is disrespectful.
(a) What does Shmuel say about placing them next to one's head?

(b) In which point is Shmuel disproved from a Beraisa?

(c) Where should a person then put them, if his wife is with him?

12) Rava says, that in spite of the above disproof, the Halachah is like Shmuel.
(a) Why? Where should he put them?

(b) And how do we explain the Beraisa, which says that he places them in their bag under his head?

Answers to questions

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