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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 20

1) Rav Papa asked why it was that earlier generations were accustomed to witnessing more miracles than their's was.

(a) Why could the reason not have been due to the fact that the earlier generations were more learned?

(b) Then what was the real reason, and what example does the Gemara give for that from Rav Ada bar Ahavah?

(c) What prompted Rav Papa to lodge this complaint?

(d) What is the significance of 'Masun Masun'?

2) What does the Mishnah in Uktzin mean when it says that olives which are pickled together with their leaves are Tahor?

3) Rav Gidal used to sit by the gates of the place where the women Toveled and instruct them how to Tovel properly.

(a) Why was he not afraid of sinning?

(b) Why did Rebbi Yochanan used to sit by the gates of Tevilah?

(c) Why was he not afraid of 'Ayin ha'Ra'?

4) Yosef was immune to 'Ayin ha'Ra', and the Gemara quotes two Pesukim (both in Parshas Vayechi) for this:
1. "Ben Poras, Alei Ayin".
2. "ve'Yidgu la'Rov Bekerev ha'Aretz".
(a) How do we derive Yosef's immunity from there?

(b) What is the third reason?

5) Why are ...
(a) ... slaves

(b) ... children under-Bar-Mitzvah ... ... exempt from reciting the Shema and why are they exempt from Tefilin?

(c) Why would we have thought that women, slaves and children are Patur from Tefilah?

(d) Why are they in fact, Chayav?

Answers to questions


6) Why would we have thought that women and slaves should be Chayav ...

(a) ... to recite the Shema?

(b) ... to wear Tefilin?

(c) Why does the Mishnah need to inform us that women and slaves are Chayav Mezuzah, since it is anyway not time-bound?

(d) And why does the Mishnah need to inform us that they are Chayav to Bensch, since Bensching too, is not basically a time-bound Mitzvah?

7) Women are obligated to recite Kidush on Shabbos. Abaye wanted to say that *that* is only mi'de'Rabbanan.
(a) What is wrong with that?

(b) Then why are they Chayav, considering that Kidush is a time-bound Mitzvah?

8) The Gemara is unsure whether women are Chayav to Bensch min ha'Torah or mi'de'Rabbanan.
(a) What difference does it make what their obligation is?

(b) Why should their obligation *not* be Torah-oriented?

The Beraisa states that a son may Bensch for his father, and a wife for her husband, though cursed be the Jew who is so ignorant that he cannot Bensch by himself.
(c) How will we explain this Beraisa if a woman's obligation is only mi'de'Rabbanan?
(a) How did Hashem answer the angels, who asked Him why the Pasuk in Devarim writes "Asher Lo Yisa Fanim" whereas in Bamidbar, it writes "Yisa Hashem Panav Eilecha"?

(b) How do we explain the seeming discrepancy 'Ad Kezayis, Ad Kebaeitzah'?

(a) Why is a Ba'al Keri not permitted to recite the Shema and to Bensch?
He is nevertheless obligated to think them in his heart?
(b) Why did Chazal not also obligate him to recite the Berachos of the Shema and those before eating?

(c) What does Rebbi Yehudah hold with regard to all of the above?

11) Ravina holds that 'Hirhur ke'Dibur Dami'.
(a) If so, what is the point of not saying the Shema aloud?
Rav Chisda holds that 'Hirhur La'av ke'Dibur Dami'.
(b) Then what is the point in thinking the Shema in his heart, since he not Yotze anyway?

(c) What should someone do if he has already begun the Amidah, and he remembers that he is a Ba'al Keri?

(d) What is the Gemara's initial reason for not obligating the Ba'al Keri to think the whole Amidah?

The Gemara however, rejects this answer, on account of Bensching.
(e) How does the Gemara reject it, and what *is* the Gemara's conclusion?
Answers to questions

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