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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 15


(a) What does Rebbi Chiya bar Aba in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, quoting the Pasuk in Tehilim "Erchatz be'Nikoyon Kapai, va'Asovevah es Mizbachecha, Hashem, consider someone who washes his hands, puts on Tefilin, recites the Shema and says the Amidah, as having achieved?

(b) What did Rava add to this, basing his statement on the Lashon "Erchatz be'Nikayon"etc., when the Pasuk should otherwise have written "Architz Kapai"?

(c) What other Derashah does the Gemara make from this Pasuk, based on the fact that the Pasuk has omitted the word "Mayim"?

(a) To what extent is one obligated to search for water for washing one's hands before reciting the Shema?

(b) What is the Din by Tefilah, and why the difference?

3) Someone who reads the Shema, and says the words, but so quietly that he does not hear what he is saying, is Yotze, according to the Tana Kama.
(a) What does Rebbi Yossi say in this regard, and what is his source?

(b) What does the Tana Kama do with the word "Shema", and where does Rebbi Yossi know that from?

4) The Mishnah in Terumos writes that a Cheresh who is deaf but cannot speak, should not separate Terumah, but that, if he does, his Terumah is nevertheless valid.
(a) Why should he not separate Terumah?

(b) Why does Rav Chisda think that the author of that Mishnah must be Rebbi Yossi (and not Rebbi Yehudah)?

(c) How does the Gemara try to prove (from the wording of our Mishnah) that the author could very well be Rebbi Yehudah?

(d) If the author of the Mishnah in Terumos is Rebbi Yossi (and not Rebbi Yehudah), then why does our Mishnah begin 'ha'Korei es Shema' (which implies Bedieved)?

5) According to Rebbi Yossi, someone who does not hear himself reading the Shema is not even Yotze Bedieved. The Beraisa, quoted by Rav Yehudah Berei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, permits someone who is deaf but not dumb, to separate Terumah even Lechatchilah?
(a) What is the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah and Rebbi Meir, whether one needs to hear oneself reciting the Shema (Lechatchilah) or not?

(b) On the basis of this Machlokes, what are the two ways of resolving the discrepancy between the Tana Kama (Rebbi Yehudah) of our Mishnah and the Beraisa of Rav Yehudah Brei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, which we just quoted?

Answers to questions


6) The Mishnah in Megilah writes that according to the Tana Kama, everyone is Kasher to read the Megilah except for a Cheresh, Shotah ve'Katan. Rebbi Yehudah permits a Katan to read the Megilah.
Like in question (4), the Gemara is in two minds as to who the Tana Kama could be: Whether it is Rebbi Yossi of our Mishnah (and the Tana Kama disqualifies the reading of a Cheresh etc., even Bedieved) or Rebbi Yehudah (who only permits Bedieved in our Mishnah, but not Lechatchilah) - and the Tana Kama will only forbid Lechatchilah, but not Bedieved.

(a) How does the Gemara attempt to resolve this by saying 'Cheresh, Dumya de'Shoteh ve'Katan'?
The Gemara concludes that it is possible to say 'Ha ke'de'Iysa, ve'Ha ke'de'Iysa', and that the Tana Kama could well be Rebbi Yehudah.
(b) But how can the author of the Reisha be Rebbi Yehudah, when Rebbi Yehudah specifically argues with the Tana Kama in the Seifa?
7) 'Lo Yevarech Adam Birchas ha'Mazon be'Libo, ve'Im Beirach, Yatza'.
(a) Who is the possible author of this Beraisa?
Rav Chisda quoting Rav Shilo rules like Rebbi Yehudah, and he also rules like Rebbi Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya.
(b) Why are both rulings necessary?
8) Rav Yosef says that the above Machlokes is confined to Keri'as Shema, but as far as other Berachos is concerned, everyone agrees that one is not Yotze, because the Torah writes (in Devarim) "Haskeis u'Shema Yisrael".
(a) Why is Rav Yosef's statement unacceptable?

(b) How does the Gemara amend it?

(c) Then what do we do with the Pasuk "Haskeis" etc.?

9) Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi Yehudah dispute two issues in our Mishnah: 1. Whether one is Yotze if one did not hear oneself reciting the Shema; 2. Whether one is Yotze if one did not read the words carefully.
(a) What is the Halachah in each of the two cases?

(b) How does the Gemara prove Techi'as ha'Meisim from a Pasuk in Mishlei ("She'ol ve'Otzer Rechem" etc.), and what Kal va'Chomer does it make in this regard?

(a) What do we learn from the word "u'Chesavtam" with regard to Tefilin and Mezuzos?

(b) Who is the author of this Beraisa, and why?

(c) What does the word "ve'Chasav" imply in this regard, what does Rebbi Yehudah learn from the word "ha'Alos' by Sotah, and why does the Torah write "u'Chesav*tam*" by Tefilin and Mezuzos, and not just "ve'Chasav"?

(a) In the same vein as in the previous question, what do we learn from "ve'Limad*tem*" (with regard to the recital of the Shema)?

(b) What are some examples of this?

(c) What reward can someone who is careful to read the Shema expect in time to come?

Answers to questions

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