(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Berachos 13


(a) What is the significance of the change from the name ...
1. ... 'Avram' to 'Avraham'?
2. ... 'Sarai' to 'Sarah'?
(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk "ve'Haya Shimcha Avraham"?

(c) What does Rebbi Eliezer add to that?

(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, why does someone who calls Sarah 'Sarai' not transgress a Lo Sa'aseh, since the Torah writes "Sarai Ishtecha, Lo Sikra es Shemah Sarai, Ki Sarah Shemah"!

(b) Why can we not say that someone who calls Yisrael 'Ya'akov' transgresses the La'av of "Lo Yikarei Shimcha Od Ya'akov" etc.?

(c) But in that case, Nechemyah also referred to Avraham as 'Avram' after his name had been changed, when he said "Ata Hu Hashem ha'Elokim Asher Bacharta be'Avram, ve'Samta Shemo Avraham"?

Hadran Alach, 'Mei'eimasai'!


(a) If someone is reading the Shema after the time to recite the Shema has arrived, will he fulfil the Mitzvah of reciting the Shema?

(b) Is there a proof from here that Mitzvos need Kavanah?

According to Rebbi Meir, between the chapters of the Shema, one is permitted both to greet, and to reply to the greeting of, someone whom one honors, but not someone whom he fears.
(c) Who would fall under the categories of 'honors' and 'fears' (respectively)?

(d) What is Rebbi Yehudah's opinion in this matter?

(a) What is meant by 'between the chapters'?

(b) What does Rebbi Yehudah hold with regard to 'between Va'Yomer and Emes ve'Yatziv'?

(c) Why are the Parshiyos of 'Shema', 've'Hayah Im Shamo'a' and 'va'Yomer' said specifically in *that* order?

5) According to Rebbi, Keri'as Shema must be recited in Lashon ha'Kodesh.
(a) What is his reason?
The Rabbanan disagree with Rebbi.
(b) What is the Rabbanan's reason?

(c) What does Rebbi learn from the word "Shema", and what do the Rabbanan do with that?

(d) What do the Rabbanan do with the word "ve'Hayu", and where does Rebbi know that from?

6) The Gemara suggests, that from Rebbi, it would appear that the rest of the Torah can be said in any language.
(a) What is the Gemara saying?

(b) How does it refute that contention?

We learn from "ve'Hayu" that one may not read the Pesukim or the words of the Shema in the wrong order.
(c) What does Rebbi Eliezer learn from "ha'Devarin *ha'Eileh*" - regarding Kavanah?

(d) What is Rebbi Akiva's opinion in this matter?

Answers to questions


7) Rav Zutra says that until "Al Levavecha" is the Mitzvah of Kavanah, and after that, the Mitzvah of reading. And Rav Yashiyah says that, until "Al Levavecha" is the Mitzvah of reading, and after that, the Mitzvah of Kavanah.

(a) Why can Rav Zutra not mean that after "Al Levavecha" is the Mitzvah of reading, and not before?

(b) What then, *does* he mean?

(c) If the Mitzvah of Kavanah is confined to *before* "Al Levavecha", then what does Rav Zutra do with "ve'Samtem es Devarai Eileh *al Levavchem*" which is written afterwards?

According to Rav Yashiyah, the Mitzvah of Kavanah applies after "Al Levavecha", but not that of reading (i.e. it is permitted to think it - with Kavanah).
(d) What does he do with the Pasuk "Al Levavechem *le'Daber Bam*"?
8) Rava rules like Rebbi Meir regarding Kavanah in Keri'as Shema.
(a) What does Rebbi Meir hold?

(b) What happens to someone who draws out 'Echad'?

(c) What does this mean? What should one do, and what should one *not* do?

(d) How long should one spend over 'Echad'?

9) Rebbi Yochanan requires that one stands still for the whole first paragraph.
(a) What is the opinion of Rav Nasan bar Mar Ukva quoting Rav Yehudah?
Rav expressed surprise that he did not see Rebbi accepting the Ol Malchus Shamayim.
(b) What did Rebbi Chiya tell him?

(c) What proof did Bar Kapara bring for his contention that Rebbi did not say more than the first Pasuk of the Shema?

(d) What did Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi answer him?

(a) What did Rav Nachman tell his servant to do if he was sleeping when the time to recite the Shema fell due?

(b) What was surprising about Rav Yosef's statement that a Perakdan is forbidden to recite the Shema?

(c) How does the Gemara resolve this difficulty?

(d) How was Rebbi Yochanan permitted recite the Shema, leaning on his side?

11) Rebbi Meir said in our Mishnah that between chapters one may greet someone that one honors, and reply to his greeting. Similarly, in the middle of a chapter, one may greet someone that one fears and reply to his greeting.
(a) What is the problem with the second half of each statement (i.e. the Din of replying in both cases).

(b) How does the Gemara amend Rebbi Meir's statements in order to avoid explaining them in a way which has Rebbi Meir saying the same as Rebbi Yehudah?

Answers to questions

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,