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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 12


(a) Why do we not say the Aseres ha'Dibros in Davening every day?

(b) What would the outgoing group of Kohanim say to the incoming group on the day (Shabbos) that their turn terminated?

(a) Which is the most important part of the Berachah, and what are the ramifications of this, regarding one's Kavanah?
It is obvious that if someone begins to recite a Berachah over a glass of wine thinking that it is beer, and then, realizing that it is wine, he concludes 'Borei Peri ha'Gafen'.
(b) Why is it obvious?
The Gemara's Sha'aleh is in a case of someone who is holding a glass of beer, and taking it to be wine, he begins the Berachah. However, before the conclusion of the Berachah, he realizes that it is beer, and concludes 'Shehakol' etc.
(c) What is the Gemara's Sha'aleh?
(a) What is the Machlokes Rav and Rebbi Yochanan concerning the essentials of a Berachah?
The Gemara tries to bring a proof for the above Sha'aleh (quoted in question 2) from a Beraisa which maintains that someone who began the Berachah of 'Yotzer ha'Me'oros' in Shachris thinking that it was Ma'ariv, but recalled before the end of the Berachah that it was Shachris, and concluded correctly, he is Yotze because 'everything goes after the conclusion'.
(b) Why is that proof not acceptable according to Rav?

(c) How does the Gemara reject the proof according to Rebbi Yochanan?

Finally the Gemara tries to resolve the Sha'aleh from the Beraisa, which concludes 'ha'Kol Holech Achar ha'Chitum'.
(d) If that does not come to include our Sha'aleh, then what *does* it come to include, and why is that?
(a) What does Raba bar Chinena the elder quoting Rav, learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "le'Hagid ba'Boker Chasdecha, ve'Emunascha ba'Leilos"?

(b) And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Mal'achi "Hashem Zokef Kefufim"?

Rav Sheishes used to bow down like a stick, but come up like a snake.
(c) What does this mean?
Answers to questions



(a) What changes do we make in the third Berachah of the Amidah and in the Berachah of 'Hashivah Shofteinu', during the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah, and why?

(b) What does Rebbi Elazar learn from "va'Yigbah Hashem Tzeva'kos ba'Mishpat, ve'ha'Keil ha'Kadosh Nikdash bi'Tzedakah"?

(a) What do we learn from Shmuel ha'Navi, who said to Yisrael "Gam Anochi Chalilah Li mei'Chato la'Hashem mei'Chadol le'Hispalel Ba'adchem"?

(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Gam ba'Chalosam Levushi Sak". To whom is David ha'Melech referring?

(c) Why can we not learn this from the words of Shaul ha'Melech "ve'Ein Chotei Mikem Alai, ve'Goleh es Ozni."

(a) What *do* we learn from Shaul, who failed to inform the deceased Shmuel that Hashem had also not answered him through the medium of the Urim ve'Tumim?

(b) Why is there no proof for this from the Pasuk in Yechezkel, where Hashem tells Yisrael that He would forgive them if only they were embarrassed for their sins?

We know that Shaul was forgiven either from Shmuel's words "u'Machar, Ata u'Vanecha Imi", or from "ve'Hoka'anum la'Hashem be'Giv'as Shaul, Bechir Hashem".
(c) What is the proof from each of these two Pesukim?
(a) Why would it be appropriate to read the Parshah of Ribis or that of weights and measures each day?
It would also have been appropriate to read the Parshah of Balak, because it contains the Pasuk "Kara, Shachav ka'Ari, u'che'Lavi, Mi Yekimenu".
(b) What is the significance of that Pasuk in the context of Tefilah?

(c) Why did Chazal decide not to include it?

(d) Why did they not insert just the one Pasuk in question?

9) Chazal fixed the Parshah of Tzitzis, rather than that of Ribis or of weights and measures, because of the five important things (besides Tzitzis) that it contains.
(a) What are the five things?

(b) Which of the three do we learn from 1. Acharei Levavchem; 2. Acharei Eineichem; 3. "Asher Atem Zonim Achareihem".

(a) From where does Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah finally prove that the obligation to recite the Shema also applies to the night-time?

(b) How do the Rabbanan explain the Pasuk in Yirmiyah, which writes that, in the days of the Mashiach, they will no longer speak about the miracles of Egypt, but about the miracles that will take place during *that* exodus?

(c) What precedent do we have for this in connection with Ya'akov's names?

Answers to questions

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