Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
(a) Why do we not say the Aseres ha'Dibros in Davening every day?2)
(a) Which is the most important part of the Berachah, and what are the ramifications of this, regarding one's Kavanah?It is obvious that if someone begins to recite a Berachah over a glass of wine thinking that it is beer, and then, realizing that it is wine, he concludes 'Borei Peri ha'Gafen'.
(b) Why is it obvious?The Gemara's Sha'aleh is in a case of someone who is holding a glass of beer, and taking it to be wine, he begins the Berachah. However, before the conclusion of the Berachah, he realizes that it is beer, and concludes 'Shehakol' etc.
(c) What is the Gemara's Sha'aleh?3)
(a) What is the Machlokes Rav and Rebbi Yochanan concerning the essentials of a Berachah?The Gemara tries to bring a proof for the above Sha'aleh (quoted in question 2) from a Beraisa which maintains that someone who began the Berachah of 'Yotzer ha'Me'oros' in Shachris thinking that it was Ma'ariv, but recalled before the end of the Berachah that it was Shachris, and concluded correctly, he is Yotze because 'everything goes after the conclusion'.
(b) Why is that proof not acceptable according to Rav?Finally the Gemara tries to resolve the Sha'aleh from the Beraisa, which concludes 'ha'Kol Holech Achar ha'Chitum'.
(d) If that does not come to include our Sha'aleh, then what *does* it come to include, and why is that?4)
(a) What does Raba bar Chinena the elder quoting Rav, learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "le'Hagid ba'Boker Chasdecha, ve'Emunascha ba'Leilos"?Rav Sheishes used to bow down like a stick, but come up like a snake.
(c) What does this mean?
(a) What changes do we make in the third Berachah of the Amidah and in the Berachah of 'Hashivah Shofteinu', during the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah, and why?6)
(a) What do we learn from Shmuel ha'Navi, who said to Yisrael "Gam Anochi Chalilah Li mei'Chato la'Hashem mei'Chadol le'Hispalel Ba'adchem"?7)
(a) What *do* we learn from Shaul, who failed to inform the deceased Shmuel that Hashem had also not answered him through the medium of the Urim ve'Tumim?We know that Shaul was forgiven either from Shmuel's words "u'Machar, Ata u'Vanecha Imi", or from "ve'Hoka'anum la'Hashem be'Giv'as Shaul, Bechir Hashem".
(c) What is the proof from each of these two Pesukim?8)
(a) Why would it be appropriate to read the Parshah of Ribis or that of weights and measures each day?It would also have been appropriate to read the Parshah of Balak, because it contains the Pasuk "Kara, Shachav ka'Ari, u'che'Lavi, Mi Yekimenu".
(b) What is the significance of that Pasuk in the context of Tefilah?9) Chazal fixed the Parshah of Tzitzis, rather than that of Ribis or of weights and measures, because of the five important things (besides Tzitzis) that it contains.
(a) What are the five things?10)
(a) From where does Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah finally prove that the obligation to recite the Shema also applies to the night-time?