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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 63



(a) We learn from ...
1. ... "Kumu Borchu es Hashem" etc., that this world is nothing more than a hallway leading to the dining-hall - the World to Come, and that each Berachah in the Beis Hamikdash would would begin with the words 'Baruch Hashem Elokei Yisrael Min ha'Olam ve'Ad ha'Olam' ...
2. ... "vi'Yevarchu Shem Kevodecha", that instead of 'Amen', they would answer 'Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso Le'olam Va'ed.'
3. ... "u'Meromam Al Kol Berachah u'Sehilah" that one is obligated to answer 'Baruch Shem' etc. after each Berachah, and not just once - at the conclusion of all the Berachos.
(b) The Gemara initially thought that we could not have learnt (to greet a fellow-Jew with the Name of Hashem) from Boaz, because, when Boaz greeted using the Name of Hashem, he did so of his own accord - without Divine sanction. Therefore Chazal saw fit to quote also the Pasuk "Hashem Imcha" etc., to teach us that an angel did likewise, and from *him* we can certainly learn!, because *he* would not something that is wrong!

(c) It is however possible, that the angel was merely stating his mission, part of which was "Hashem Imcha" etc., and that those words were not part of a greeting, at all. That is why the Tana quotes a third Pasuk "Al Tavuz" etc., to reinstate the first answer - to learn from Boaz. What did we ask? Maybe Boaz was doing this of his own accord?
That is not a question one asks of Gedolim, concludes the Tana, whose words and opinions of the Gedolei ha'Dor we are obligated to accept, as the Pasuk writes "Al Tevush Ki Ziknah Imecha"!

(d) If we Darshan the Pasuk "Eis La'asos la'Hashem", etc. in the order that it is written, then we explain it like this: "Sometimes it is necessary to perform justice, to punish the Resha'im, because they have nullified Your Torah".
But if we invert the phrases, we will explain it "They (Chazal) negated your Torah (to issue decrees which seemingly contravene Torah - like Eliyahu on Mount Karmel, who built a Bamah although the Beis Hamikdash was standing (and like the one currently under discussion), in order to repair a breach".

(a) 'be'Sha'as ha'Machnisin, Pazer' means that when everyone else withdraws (nobody is spreading words of Torah), then you should scatter (spread your words of Torah to Talmidim) - 'where there are no men, be a man'. On the other hand 'be'Sha'as ha'Mefazrin, Kanes' - when there are others spreading words of Torah, then withdraw - out of humility, since you are not needed.


1. "Yesh Mefazer ve'Nosaf Od" - in this context means, that 'if you see a generation which loves Torah, then teach it to them'.
2. " Eis La'asos la'Hashem" etc. means, that if they do not appreciate Torah, then withhold it from them, in order that the Torah should not be despised.
(c) 'Zalas Kevotz, Kenei Minah' means that if you see a commodity that is cheap, buy it and hoard it. Then, when the price goes up, you will be able to sell it at a profit (like Hadrian told his nephew Unklus, in Gitin).

(d) Abaye needed to teach us the inference:namely, that where there *is* a man, one should withdraw, in a case where the man is not one's superior, but one's equal; even there, the laws of modesty demand that one shows a law profile in deference to the man who was there first.

(a) The small Parshah upon which everything depends is the Pasuk in Mishlei "be'Chol Derachecha De'eihu".

(b) Rava adds that this even applies to performing an Aveirah (like Eliyahu at Har ha'Karmel - meaning that even when it is necessary to sin [under given circumstances], if it is for the sake of Hashem, then do it!).

(c) A clean profession means one which is clean from theft, and an easy one - which does not involve a loss of pocket ('easy' might also mean that it leaves one time to learn).

(d) The Gemara's example is 'embroidery'.

(a) We learn from "Ish Re'im Lehisro'ei'a" that it is not good to have too many friends as constant visitors, as this breaks him - financially.

(b) If Potifera had not appointed Yosef over his estate, the episode with his wife would never have happened.

(c) The Torah places the Parshah of Nazir next to that of Sotah, to teach us that, if someone sees a Sotah being afflicted, he should take steps to avoid being a partner to the same crime, and avow himself from wine.

(d) The Torah places the Parshah of Sotah next to that of Terumos and Ma'asros, to teach us that someone who does not go to the Kohen to give him his dues, will eventually need to go to him with his wife.
And not only that, but in the end, (because he refused to give) he will himself need to receive - Ma'aser Oni.

(e) "Ish Asher Yiten la'Kohen, Lo Yihyeh", means that someone who does give the Kohen his dues, will have a lot (similar to the Derashah "Aser te'Aser" - 'Aser bi'Shevil she'Tisasher').

(a) 'ha'Meshatef Shem Shamayim be'Tza'aro' means that one recites the Berachah 'Dayan ha'Emes' over one's problems, or that one prays to Hashem for help.

(b) His reward will be that Hashem doubles his income, or that his Parnasah will come easily ("Baruch ha'Gever Asher Yivtxch ba'Hashem, Vehaya Hashem Mivtacho").

(c) Someone who is lax in his Torah-study will have no strength to stand up to the troubles that come his way.

(d) Others interpret "Hisrapisa" as referring, not just to laxness in Torah-study, but to laziness in any single Mitzvah.
Either way, Hashem punishes, as He always does, measure for measure - lack of strength for lack of fortitude.

(a) They sent two Talmidei-Chachamim down to the Golah to rebuke Chananya for fixing leap-years and Rosh Chodesh, outside Yerushalayim.

(b) Chananya had just announced that these men were Gedolei ha'Dor, so how could he, the moment he was unhappy with them, call them 'empty men'?

(c) In was perfectly acceptable for Rebbi Akiva to fix leap-years and Rosh Chodesh in Chutz la'Aretz, because there was nobody like him in Eretz Yisrael.

(d) They told Chananya that even though there was nobody like him when he left Eretz Yisrael for the Golah,what he did not realise was that was certainly no longer the case, since the kids had now become fully-grown goats, and were at least his equals.
In fact, if he did not relent, they would place him in Niduy.




(a) What they meant with the words 've'Im Lo, Ya'alu ba'Har' was, that if the people of the Golah wished to continue along that path, then Achyah (one of the leaders of the Golah) may as well go and build an altar on one of the mountain tops - like the other nations of the world. Chananya will play the harp, and let them all publicly deny Hashem.

(b) Chananya was a not only a Levi, but was also from the family of singers. That is why they cited him as being the instrumentalist.

(c) The people burst into tears, and acknowledged their belief in Hashem.

(d) The source for prohibition of fixing leap-years and Roshei-Chodoshim outside Yerushalayim is the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki mi'Tziyon Tetzei Sorah" etc.
(see also Rashi Amud 1, d.h. 'Me'aber Shanim' and the Maharsha there in Halachos and the first Maharsha in Agados on Amud 2).

8) The two Chachamim took upon themselves to countermand Chananya's more stringent rulings, in order to discourage people from following him (it was a Hora'as Sha'ah, not a regular pattern of behavior).


(a) The Sanhedrin is referred to as a vineyard because they sat in rows, in a pattern which resembled a vineyard.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah carried the title 'Rosh ha'Medabrim be'Chol Makom' (as we shall see in Shabbos).

(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns that if the Torah called someone who traveled only twelve Mil (twelve kilometers) to ask Moshe for a Halachah, a 'Mevakesh Hashem', then how much more so the Talmidei Chachamim, who travel to other towns to learn Torah, should be called 'Mevakshei Hashem'!

(d) "ve'Diber Hashem El Moshe Panim El Panim" means either, that Hashem said to Moshe 'Come, let us learn Halachah together; or just as I learnt openly with you, so should you learn openly with Yisrael - Go and return the Tent to its former place.

(a) People will say, said Hashem to Moshe, that if Hashem is upset with Yisrael, and Moshe is upset with them, then what will happen to them?

(b) Hashem threatened Moshe that, unless he returns the Tent, Yehoshua his Talmid, will take over from him.

(c) The threat did materialize, though not immediately. Yehoshua took over from Moshe, forty years later.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah learns from "ha'Yom ha'Zeh" that Torah remains forever as dear to those who learn it as on the day it was given (like Chazal say it should, from the Pasuk "Asher Anochi Metzaveh Eschem *ha'Yom*").

(e) This can be seen from a Talmid-Chacham, who, should he once fail to say the Shema, feels as if he has never recited it.

11) (a) The Gemara explains "Haskes u'Shema Yisrael" either to mean ...
1. ... that one should make groups and learn be'Chavrusa, not on one's own.
2. ... that one should be willing to suffer in order to learn Torah, like Resh Lakish's Derashah on the Pasuk in Bamidbar "Adam Ki Yamus ba'Ohel", that a person should be willing to suffer for Torah.
3. ... that one should first learn the text without asking any questions ("Has" means to be silent), and only then, the second time round, should one start cutting it up, to question it and to delve into it (as Chazal say elsewhere "Ligresa ve'Hadar Lisbar' (first learn the text, and afterwards explain it).
(a) In order to merit the butter of Torah, one must first get rid of the milk (i.e. discard one's desires for good living).

(b) A Talmid who accepts the rebuke of one's Rebbe in silence, merits to master the laws of Nidus - to be able to differentiate between Tahor blood and Tamei blood.

(c) If this happens twice, then he will even merit to become an expert in money-matters, the most complex of Halachic rulings.

(d) Rebbi Yishmael says that someone who wants to become wise, should occupy himself with Dinei Mamonos, since there is no area in Torah which is superior to them, because they are like a flowing fountain.

(a) We learn from "Im Navalta be'Hisnase" that if someone makes a laughing-stock of himself, by asking what he does not understand, even when his questions sound stupid to others, then, in the end, he will become great, whereas ...

(b) ... if he remains silent, and does not ask his Rebbe things that he fails to understand, he will remain ignorant (with his finger on his mouth).

(a)&(b) If the Keini were rewarded so amply for Yisro's kindness to Moshe, even though he did this for his own personal reasons - in order to find a husband for one of his daughters (see Maharsha), then how much more so does someone who invites a Talmid-Chacham, who feeds and clothes him and gives him benefit from his property, deserve rich reward!

(c) And Rebbi Yossi learns a similar Kal va'Chomer from the Egyptians, whom Hashem ordered were not to be rejected, because they hosted Yisrael in their land - despite the fact that they only did so because they wanted them to as their shepherds; then how much more should someone who hosts a Talmid-Chacham, feeds him and gives him to drink etc., receive such a reward!

(d) Rebbi Eliezer the son of Yossi ha'Gelili says that if Oved Edom ha'Giti received such a reward for looking after the Oron, even though he did nothing more than sweep and settle the dust in front of it, then how much more so should someone who hosts a Talmid-Chacham, who feeds him and gives him to drink etc., receive such a reward!

(e) The blessing that Oved Edom ha'Giti received was that he and his eight daughters-in-law all bore sextuplets.

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