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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 60



(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan, someone who buys an article of which he already has one, recites 'Shehechiyanu'. The Gemara deduces from here, that if he merely bought back the article that he had once owned, he does not recite 'Shehechiyanu'.

(b) It appears from the Beraisa, that Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah only argue if they bought an article similar to the one that he already owned. But when it comes to buying back the article which he once owned, they will both agree that no Berachah is required (not like Rebbi Yochanan).

(c) Rebbi Yochanan answers that, really they argue even in the latter case (when he bought the article back) too; and the Tana presents the case of the second article, to tell us that that Rebbi Meir's opinion extends even to that case (where the article, after all, is a new one). Even there, he maintains that no Berachah is required.

(d) The Tana Kama prefers to present the Machlokes that way, to teach us the extent of Rebbi Meir's leniency (that he is not obligated to recite a Berachah), rather than the extent of Rebbi Yehudah's stringency (that one is even permitted to recite a Berachah if he just bought the article back), because of the principle 'Ko'ach de'Hetera Adif' - anyone can say 'Asur', if he uncertain about the Halachah. But one only says 'Mutar', if one is absilutely sure that it really *is* permitted.

(a) 'Mevarech al ha'Ra'ah Me'en Al ha'Tovah' means, that if the immediate result of the occurrence is negative, he recites 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes, despite the fact that, later, it will become beneficial to him (like when a man's field is swamped, which means no produce that year, but a bumper harvest the followung one).

(b) 'Mevarech al ha'Tovah Me'en ha'Ra'ah' means that, if now, the occurrence has positive ramifications for him, he recites 'ha'Tov ve'ha'Metiv, despite the fact that, later, it will cause him a loss (like someone who finds something in a country where the law is, that all found objects belong to the king, and that anybody who retains the article that he finds, will be flogged).

(a) When Rachel conceived for the first time, Leah was pregnant too. In fact, she was pregnant with Yosef, and Rachel, Dinah. However, Leah had compassion on Rachel. She realized that, if she would indeed give birth to a boy and Rachel to a girl, then eleven of the twelve boys which the Imahos knew were destined to be born to Ya'akov, would have already been born, leaving Rachel no chance to bear more than one boy - less than each of the maid-servants, each of whom had *two*.
So she prayed to Hashem, that *she* should give birth to a girl, leaving Rachel with the possibility to have two boys. It is as if the Torah had written here "ve'Achar she'Danah Din be'Atzmah".

(b) In any event, we see here that it is possible to change the fetus from one sex to the other through Tefilah. So how can our Mishnah write about this very case that it is a futile Tefilah?

(c) Yes! there is a simple way of answering this Kashya: by saying that Leah's Tefilah took place *within* forty days, whereas our Mishnah speaks about praying *after* forty days, when the sex of the baby has already been established.

(d) One would Daven ...

1. ... during the first three days - that the semen should not lose its potency.
2. ... between three and forty days - that it should be a boy.
3. ... from forty days till three months - that his mother should fall pregnant again, for fear that the new baby will squash the old one.
4. ... from three till six months - that his mother will not miscarry.
5. ... from six till nine months - that the baby should emerge without problems.
(e) Tefilah will only help until forty days, by a baby which was 'sown' by both parents at the same time.
(a) When Hillel arrived in his home-town and heard a scream, he said that he was sure that the scream did not emanate from his house.

(b) We can either explain the Pasuk forwards, to say "mi'Shemu'ah Ra'ah, Lo Yi'ra (because) Nachon Libo Batu'ach ba'Hashem"; or backwards, to say that if "Nachon Libo Batu'ach ba'Hashem (then), mi'Shemuah Ra'ah Lo Yi'ra. (The Pasuk cannot be read forwards, to say that if "mi'Shemu'ah Ra'ah Lo Yi'ra [then] Nachon Libo Batu'ach ba'Hashem"- which is what appears to be the objective of this Sugya.)

(c) "Ashrei Adam Mefached Tamid" applies to being afraid that one will forget one's learning (and presumably, this incorporates the fear that one will fail in other areas of spirituality). Such a fear, will only encourage one to review one's learning, and to pay more attention to the Mitzvos, and is therefore praiseworthy.

(d) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi told the Talmid who was afraid, that he must be a sinner, because fear is a result of sin.

(e) Rav Hamnuna told Yehudah bar Nasan that sighing out of fear brings on afflictions (as we learnt above, that sighing breaks the body).

(a) If they judge before sentencing, then one has nothing to fear; all one has to do is to take care not to break the law, and one will be safe. And if has already broken the law, then he should keep away from the town altogether.

(b) The second Lashon maintains that, even if they do judge fairly, prayer is still necessary, because even if one is innocent, it often happens that there is nobody to defend him.

(a) Abaye objected to the final words 'Tehi Misasi Kaparasi'. One should not ask for death, because of the principle 'Al Tiftach Peh le'Satan'.

(b) Klal Yisrael said to Yeshayah "Kim'at ki'Sedom Hayinu, la'Amorah Daminu". What did Yeshayah reply? "Suim'u Devar Hashem, Ketzinei Sedom" etc.
So we see, that the evil that one expresses about oneself, becomes justified.

(c) One says the Tefilah 'she'Hitzaltani min ha'Or' upon leaving the bathhouse.

(d) Rav Avahu was bathing, when the floor caved in under him. A miracle occurred and, not only was he saved, but he managed to save a hundred and one people with one arm (when some people held onto his arm, and others onto the arms of each other).

(a) Upon entering the bloodletter's rooms, one would say 'Yehi Ratzon ... she'Yehe Esek Zeh Li li'Refu'ah, Ki Rofeh Chinam Ata'. (Nowadays, we say this before taking any cure.)

(b) Abaye objected to the conclusion 'she'Ein Darkan shel B'nei Adam Leraf'os' etc., because the Pasuk says in Sh'mos "ve'Rapo Yerape", from which Chazal derive that a doctor is permitted to practice.

(c) Upon getting up from the bloodletter's chair, one would say 'Baruch ... Rofe Chinam' (or according to some 'Cholim').




(a) One politely says 'Hiskabdu Mechubadim' to the two angels who constantly guard him, as the Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Ki Mal'achav Yetzaveh Lach, Lishemarcha be'Chol Derachecha".

(b) By asking them to wait for him to come out and join them, he was inviting them to take leave of him and not come back. So he (Abaye) changed the text to 'Shamruni Shamruni, Izruni Izruni, Samchuni Samchuni, Hamtinu Li Hamtinu Li, Ad she'Ekanes ve'Etze'. Just like people, it seems, angels don't mind helping out, but they don't like hanging around doing nothing!

(c) 'she'Im Yipase'ach Echod Mehem' refers to the 'Chalulim' (the hollow organs, such as the heart, the stomach and the intestines), whereas 'O Yisasem Echad Mehem' refers to the holes. Whether a hole appears in the former, or the latter become stopped up, a human being cannot live.

(d) 'u'Mafli La'sos' refers to the miracle of the human body, which, in spite of its many openings, contains the Ru'ach inside it, without which the person would die; compare this to air in a bottle, which will only remain there as long as the bottle is closed, but, the moment the stopper is removed, the air escapes.

(a) Shmuel objected to the ending 'Rofe Cholim', because it turns everyone into sick people, so he changed the text to ...

(b) ... 'Rofe Chol Basar'.

(c) Rav Papa commented that we should combine the two texts and say 'Rofe Chol Chol Basar u'Mafli La'asos'.

(a) 'u'Sehe Mitasi Shelemah Lefanecha' is a prayer requesting that none of one's children should be wicked (not keep Torah and Mitzvos).

(b) The first prayer prescribed by the Gemara, even as one opens one's eyes, is the Berachah of 'Elokai, Neshamah' etc.. Incidently, this Berachah does not begin with 'Baruch', because it is a 'Birchas Hoda'ah', which often do not open with a Berachah.

(c) When one ...

1. ... opens one's eyes, one says 'Baruch ... Poke'ach Ivrim'.
2. ... sits up - 'Baruch ... Matir Asurim.
3. ... gets dressed - 'Baruch ... Malbish Arumim'.
4. ... straightens up - 'Baruch ... Zokef Kefufim'.
(d) When one ...
1. ... stands on the floor, one says - 'Baruch ... Roka ha'Aretz Al ha'Mayim'.
2. ... starts walking - 'Baruch ... ha'Mechin Mitz'adei Gaver'.
3. ... puts on one's shoes - 'Baruch ... she'Asah Li Kol Tzorki'.
4. ... tightens one's belt - 'Baruch ... Ozer Yisrael bi'Gevurah'.
5. ... dons one's hat - 'Baruch ... Oter Yisrael be'Sif'arah'.
(e) When one washed one's face, he would recite the Berachah 'ha'Ma'avir Sheinah me'Einai'.
(a) 'Chayav Adam Levarech al ha'Ra'ah ka'Shem she'Hu Mevarech al ha'Tovah', means that one should accept the 'bad' things that Hashem deals one, in the same way as one accepts the good things. One recites the Berachah 'Baruch ... ha'Tov ve'ha'Metiv' over good news, so too does one recite ' over the bad news 'Baruch ... Dayan ha'Emes'. Because it is important to realize that the one is Heaven-sent - for one's good, no less than the other.

(b) The Pasuk from Tehilim that bears this out is 'Kos Yeshu'os Esa, u've'Shem Hashem Ekra' ... 'Tzarah ve'Yagon Emtza, u've'Shem Hashem Ekra'.

(c) And the Pasuk from Iyov is 'Hashem Nasan, va'Hashem Lakach, Yehi Shem Hashem Mevorach'!

(a) A Jew should always say 'Kol de'Avid Rachmana le'Tav Avid'!

(b) All on one night, Rebbi Akiva's cock and donkey died and his lamp blew out, whilst he was asleep in the tree, so the bandits who were ransacking the town, remained unaware of his whereabouts. 'Did I not tell you', Rebbi Akiva ecstatically exclaimed later, 'Whatever Hashem does is all for the good'!

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