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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 58



(a) When Shomron is cursed, all its neighbors are blessed.

(b) One recites 'Baruch ... Chacham ha'Razim', when one sees a group of 600,000 Jews. Its significance is that Hashem knows what is in the hearts of each of them.

(c) 'Bushah Imchem' is what one recites upon seeing the equivalent number of gentiles?

(d) Ben Azai was exclaiming what a wonderful thing it is, to see so many people, all of whom help one another by providing each other with their needs.
Adam ha'Rishon had to prepare his own food and his own clothes - all from scratch; whereas *he*, Ben Azai, had everything provided for him. On top of that, he was a wealthy man, and everyone came to his door bringing their wares.

(a) A good guest, said Ben Azai, believes that whatever his host does is all for *his* benefit. Whilst a bad one argues that, in reality, the host prepared everything for his own family, and, compared to the host's family, how much did *he*, the guest, eat?
Very little!

(b) "ve'ha'Ish bi'Yemei Shaul Zaken, Ba ba'Anashim", refers to Yishai, who would go out and come in at the head of 600,000 men, to whom he would say a Derashah.

(c) 'Uchlusei Yisrael' means at least 600,000 people, as we explained.

(a) Upon seeing a gentile Chacham, one recites 'Baruch ... she'Nasan me'Chachmaso le'Basar va'Dam'.

(b) Similarly, when one sees a Jewish King, one recites 'Baruch ... she'Chalak mi'Chevodo li'Yerei'av', and over a gentile King 'Baruch ... she'Nasan mi'Chevodo le'Basar va'Dam'.

(a) That Tzedoki was surprised to see Rav Sheishes, who was blind, at the gathering of people of people who had come to see the King, so he said to him 'Chatzbi le'Nahara' etc. - 'Whole barrels go down to the River to draw water; What are broken ones doing there'?

(b) Whenever there was a noise, the Tzedoki thought that the king was coming, but Rav Sheishes, quoting the Pasuk in Melachim, where Hashem was not in the passing storm-wind, not in the earthquake, and not in the fire. Where was He?
He accompanied the thin quiet voice that followed. And the same happened here; it was the silence that heralded the King's arrival (because the Heavenly Kingdom and the earthly one work along parallel lines). Which goes to prove that Rav Sheishes, for all his blindness, was more aware of what was going on than the Tzedoki.

(c) When Rav Sheishes recited the Berachah, the Tzedoki said 'Do you recite a Berachah over someone that you cannot even see'? (d) Some say that his own friends poked out his eyes; others, that Rav Sheishes put his eyes on him, and turned him into a pile of bones.

(a) Rav Shiloh told the King that he had given the man lashes because he had had relations with a donkey.

(b) After excusing himself for not killing him, because, 'since the time of Galus' he told the king, 'we do have the right to kill a man', he recited the Pasuk "Lecha Hashem ha'Gedulah" etc. (see Maharsha, as to why he quoted it here), explaining to the King that he was thanking Hashem for appointing the current incumbent, who loved justice, to the throne. Needless to say, this pleased the King immensely, and he promptly handed to him the staff, the symbol of judicial authority.

(c) He explained to the man that the gentiles are referred to in Yechezkel as donkeys, and that he had therefore not lied. But then, when he saw him preparing to go and reveal to the King that he had called them donkeys, he decided that 'ha'Ba Lehorgecha, Hashkeim Lehorgo' - and he killed him.

(d) We learn this from the Pasuk in Shemos "Im ba'Machteres, Yimatzei ha'Ganov" etc., which teaches us that the moment it becomes clear that the thief is desperate, and will not hesitate to kill, one is permitted to kill him without warning.

(a) Rav Shiloh decided then, that since this Pasuk was instrumental in saving him from the King, he must expound it.

(b) "Gedulah" and "Gevurah" respectively, refer to 'Ma'aseh Bereishis' and 'Yetzi'as Mitzrayim', according to Rav Shiloh.

(c) 'Tif'eres" refers to the stopping of the sun and moon in the sky by Yehoshua. "Netzach, to the ultimate victory over Rome, and "Hod", to the battle of Nachlei Arnon (described earlier on 55b).

(d) The battle hinted in "Ki Chol ba'Shamayim u'va'Aretz" refers to the battle with Sisra, where the stars participated in his defeat.

(e) And "Lecha Hashem ha'Mamlachah" refers to the battle with Amalek, after which Hashem's Name and Throne (Kingdom) will, once again, become complete.

(a) "Lecha Hashem ha'Mamlachah" teaches us that all appointments (to greatness) are made by Hashem - even managers of minor concerns.

(b) "Netzach" refers to Yerushalayim, and "Hod" to the Beis ha'Mikdash.




(a) Someone who sees the houses of Yisrael in a state of destruction, recites 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes'.


1. Over non-Jewish houses that are built-up one says 'Beis Ge'im (meaning proud ones) Yisach Hashem', and ...
2. 'Kel Nekamos Hashem' etc., when one sees them destroyed.
(a) Some say that sighing breaks half a person's body, others say that it breaks the entire body.

(b) Rav Chanah bar Chanilai's household would do sixty sessions of baking by day and sixty sessions of baking by night, in order that the poor should always have something to eat. Their hands were always in their pockets, ready to pull out money, in case a poor man from a good family came, who was embarrassed because he had fallen on hard times and had no money, came for financial assistance. The house (like that of Avraham Avinu) had four doors, one in each direction.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk "Im Lo Batim Rabim le'Shamah Yihyu" etc., we learn that the houses of Talmidei-Chachamim are destined to be destroyed.

(d) And from the Pasuk "Shir ha'Ma'alos, ha'Botchim la'Hashem ke'Har Tziyon", we learn that the houses of those who trust in Hashem, like Har Tziyon, will be rebuilt.

(e) So Ula told Rav Chisda that the houses of the Talmidei-Chachamim are destroyed, just like the Beis Hamikdash, the house of Hashem - because it is befitting for the servant to suffer like his master.

(a) The following phrase (after 've'Asaf Eschem ba'Din') is 've'Asid Lahakimchem ba'Din'.

(b) The Berachah concludes 'Baruch ... Mechayeh ha'Meisim'.

(c) When one sees a close friend for the first time ...

1. ... after thirty days, one recites 'Baruch ... Shehecheyanu' etc.
2. ... after a year, one recites 'Baruch ... Mechayeh ha'Mesim'.
(a) 'Hayisi ki'Chli Oved' refers to an article that has been lost for a year, after which time we assume that the owner has despaired from getting it back. This releases the finder from the obligation of announcing it further, and, should he find the article only after that, it even permits him to keep it.

(b) In the same way as the owner of an article, despairs after one year, so too, does one forget about a deceased person after one year. (This has ramifications regarding the Dinim of mourning and the recital of Kadish.)

(c) When Rav Pap and Rav Huna brei de'Rav Yehoshua saw Rav Chanina Brei de'Rav Ika, they recited the Berachos 'Baruch ... Asher Chalak me'Chochmaso le'Basar va'Dam' and 'Baruch ... Mechayeh ha'Mesim''.
He responded with the same two Berachos, but he added 'Baruch ... Chacham ha'Razim', because, in their wisdom, he considered them equal to 600,000 Jews.

(d) They said to him 'You are so wise! (it is also possible that this was meant as a rhetorical question - as if to say 'What a wise guy you are'!). They looked at him, and he became a pile of bones (either out of jealousy, or because of his presumptiousness).

(a) One would recite ...

1. ... 'Baruch ... Meshaneh ha'Beri'os' when upon seeing people who were strikingly unusual in their appearance, such as someone who was black red, an albinos, someone with an outsize stomach, a dwarf or someone either with warts or with a twisted mouth.
2. ... 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes' if one saw someone whose hands were cut off, who was blind, whose head was flat instead of round, whose legs had been cut off, or someone covered with boils or freckles.
(b) If one saw someone who had been covered with freckles since birth, he would recite 'Baruch Meshaneh ha'Beri'os'(and the same would apply to any of the cases mentioned in the previous list).

(c) The latter Beraisa must be speaking when he was stricken only afterwards, because of the first case mentioned there - 'Kite'a', which by definition, means that his hands were cut off (and not, that he was born without hands). So all the other cases must mean the same.

(d) 'Kite'a' usually means a person without feet.

(a) They would recite 'Baruch ... Meshaneh ha'Beri'os' over an elephant, a monkey or an owl.

(b) 'Baruch she'Kachah Lo Alomo' is the Berachah that one recites over beautiful creatures or beautiful trees.

(c) A Kochva de'Shavit is a shooting star (it is long like a Shavit [a stick] - presumably because of its movement across the sky - and appears as if it was opening the heaven, like a zip being opened).

(d) Shmuel stated that he knew the pathways of the sky, as well as the pathways of his hometown, Neherda'a.

(e) Shmuel admitted that he was not well acquainted with the shooting star.

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