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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 28



(a) When Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah became Rosh Yeshivah, he removed the guard from the Beis Hamedrash, with the dramatic result that, so many Talmidim poured in, that four hundred (others say, seven hundred) benches were added. In his opinion, anyone who wished to learn, should be entitled to enter.

(b) Rabban Gamliel only permitted somebody whose inside was in keeping with his outside to enter (as a result of which many, many great Talmidei Chachamim were refused entry).

(c) They showed Rabban Gamliel in a dream white barrels full of ashes, insinuating that those Talmidim who were left outside were really unfit.

(d) The consolation however, was not genuine. It was only in order to pacify Rabban Gamliel, who was very upset when he saw the influx of Talmidim.

(a) 'Iduyos' was learnt on that day. This is because, due to the influx of Talmidim, who had previously been barred from entering the Beis Hamedrash by Rabban Gamliel, many issues had remained obscure. The issues were now discussed, and the Talmidei Chachamim all *testified* what they had received from their Rebbes - hence the name 'Iduyos'. So powerful was the Divine inspiration which ensued, that the entire Maseches is Halachah (as we wrote on the previous Daf).

(b) That day is known simply as 'Bo ba'Yom'.

(c) Rabban Gamliel (as if to prove irrefutably that his actions were Leshem Shamayim, and not out of arrogance - Chas ve'Shalom - continued to appear daily in the Beis Hamedrash, not missing as much as one single day - in spite of his deposition!

(a) Although Sancheiriv had exiled Amon, scattering them among the other nations, as was his custom, nevertheless, Rabban Gamliel quoted a Pasuk in Yirmiyah "ve'Acharei Chein, Ashiv es Shevus B'nei Amon, Amar Hashem".

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua argued that there is no more proof that Pasuk (which is written in the future) that Amon had already returned, than there is from the Pasuk in Amos "ve'Shavti es Shevus Ami Yisrael", that Yisrael have returned - when in fact, we know that they have not.

(c) We have a principle 'Kol de'Parish (something or someone who separates from the majority), mei'Ruba Parush' (separates from the majority).
Consequently, when someone comes to us from any nation, we contend that he is probably from the majority of nations, and not from Amon, who are forbidden, but who are in the minority.

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua was a Pechami - a charcoal maker or a blacksmith. Rabban Gamliel only realized that, from the blackness of the walls of his house, but had not been aware of it previously. And Rebbi Yehoshua reprimanded him for not knowing it before - a Nasi ought to know the financial suffering (a Pechami normally lived in abject poverty) of the people under his jurisdiction.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua clearly believed that Rabban Gamliel was not worthy of serving as Nasi on his own merit. However, on the merit of his ancestors (Hillel, Rabban Gamliel ha'Zakein and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel), he accepted his request to forgive him.

(c) What Rebbi Yehoshua meant by 'Mazeh ben Mazeh' etc., was, that it was befitting for a Kohen who was the son of a Kohen to continue doing the Avodah (note, that in keeping with his line of thought - mentioned in the previous answer, he stressed the concept of a Kohen who is *the son of a Kohen*). He should not be told by someone who is not himself a Kohen or the son of a Kohen, that his implements are not fit to be used.

(d) Rebbi Akiva accepted Rebbi Yehoshua's request, because, he claimed, they only deposed Rabban Gamliel in deference to Rebbi Yehoshua. So how could they now refuse Rebbi Yehoshua's request to reinstate him?

(e) Based on the principle "Ma'alin ba'Kodesh ve'Lo Moridin', how could they depose Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (who, unlike Rabban Gamliel, had done nothing to warrant his deposition)?
They resolved this problem by making a compromise: to allow Rabban Gamliel to Darshen two weeks out of every three, and Rebbi Elazar, every third week.
'Shabbos shel Mi'? is simply the question that someone who had not been attended the Derashah for a few weeks, would ask: 'Whose Shabbos is it'? Meaning whose turn is it to Darshen? Rabban Gamliel's or Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah's ?

(f) The name of the Talmid who posed the original Sha'aleh to Rabban Gamliel was Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai.

(a) Someone who delays Musaf after the seventh hour, according to the Chachamim, is called 'a Poshei'a' - a sinner.

(b) When Rebbi Zeira felt too weak to learn, he sat outside the Beis Hamedrash in order to be able at least to stand up for the Talmidei Chachamim as they left the Beis Hamedrash, and to receive reward for that.

(c) He learnt on that occasion, that it was not Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi who ruled like the Chachamim - to Daven first Musaf and then Minchah, but Rebbi Yochanan.

(d) Either the Pasuk means that anyone who Davens Musaf after seven hours (according to Rebbi Yehudah) will be 'broken', or that anyone who Davens Shachris after four hours according to Rebbi Yehudah will be 'troubled'.

(e ) "Besulosai Nugos" means "My young girls are troubled".




(a) The Gemara concludes that the Halachah is neither like Rav Huna, nor like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and that consequently, one is permitted to eat something before Musaf and Minchah respectively.

(b) What Rav Ivya could have done was to Daven Musaf on his own, make Kidush and eat at home and then go to hear the Derashah.
Rav Ivya however, assumed this to be forbidden, because he thought that it is forbidden to Daven Musaf prior to the the community, which is correct, but only as far as someone who wants to Daven *in Shul* before the community have done is concerned, not to someone who Davens on one's own, like Rav Ivya thought. Consequently, Rav Ivya could really have left the Shul and Davened Musaf on his own.

(c) He did not want to eat before Musaf because of Rav Huna, who forbade it (although the Gemara in fact, concludes, that the Halachah is not like Rav Huna).

(a) Before learning Rebbi Nechunya ben Ha'kanah would pray to Hashem to remove all stumbling-blocks from his learning (that he should not cause others to err because of him).

(b) After he had concluded, he thanked Hashem for allotting his portion among those who learn Torah, and not among those who waste their time in idle activities.

(c) 'And let me not stumble' he pleaded with Hashem 'in a matter of Halachah, which will cause my friends to rejoice (at my predicament). Others explain it to mean that he should not err, in which case, his friends will be able to rejoice with him.

(a) Either 'Man'u Beneichem min ha'Hegyon' means that they should not spend too much time learning Chumash or Tenach, which very attractive (and will result in the children subsequently being so enamored with Tenach, that they will spend insufficient time learning Torah she'be'Al Peh, which is the most important Limud.
Or, that they should be discouraged from excessive children's talk.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai cried, firstly, because if he would cry (out of fear) when called to a human king, who is here today, gone tomorrow; whose anger fluctuates; who can only imprison or kill somebody temporarily, then now that he had been called by the King of Kings, who lives forever; whose anger does not fluctuate; and who, when he binds or kills, binds and kills forever, how much more so does he have good reason to cry!

(c) His Talmidim were surprised that in his blessing, he wished them that they should fear Hashem just as they fear man. 'That and no more', they asked him?

(d) He answered that when someone wants to sin, he tends to turn round to see that nobody is watching. In other words, if someone *were* watching, he would desist from sinning. If only one would develop the same fear of Hashem - and that whenever Hashem 'was watching', one would desist from sinning!

(e) His last recorded words were 'Clear out the vessels so that they should not become Tamei, and prepare a chair for Chizkiyahu, King of Yehudah, who is coming.'

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua maintains that one may Daven a shortened form of Amidah, whereas Rebbi Akiva rules that someone who is fluent, must Daven the full Amidah, and it is when he is not fluent, that he is permitted to Daven a short version of the Amidah.

(b) Someone who is traveling in a dangerous place is obligated to Daven a short Tefilah, asking Hashem for Divine assistance in times of trouble.

(a) If two travelers are riding a donkey and the time arrives to Daven, then the one dismounts and Davens, whilst his friend looks after the donkey.

(b) If there is no second person to look after the donkey, then the rider is permitted, if necessary, to Daven whilst still riding. However, he would be expected to turn his face, or at least his heart, towards Yerushalayim.

(c) Someone who is on a boat or on a a raft, simply attunes his heart towards the Kodesh Kodoshim.

(a) The eighteen Berachos of the Amidah correspond to the eighteen Names of Hashem mentioned in the Pasuk in Tehilim: "Havu la'Hashem B'nei Eilim" (which, as the Gemara explains in Rosh ha'Shanah, refers to Tefilah). It also corresponds to the eighteen Names of Hashem in Keri'as Shema, and the eighteen vertebrae in the spinal cord.
(These three appear to correspond to the three parts of man's Soul - the vertebrae [Nefesh - physicality]; the Keri'as Shema [Ru'ach - Spirit, with which we praise Hashem]; "Havu la'Shashem B'nei Eilim" (which refers to Matan Torah) [Neshamah - the most spiritual of the three Souls]. This teaches us that, when we stand before Hashem, we must pray to him at all three levels.) Also see 'Insights'.

(b) The nineteenth Berachah corresponds to "*Keil* ha'Kavod Hir'im"; or to *"Echad"* in the first Pasuk of the Shema; or to the small nineteenth vertebra in the spinal cord.

(c) When bowing down in the Amidah, one is obligated to bow down until all the vertebrae in the spinal cord protrude.
Or until two folds form in the skin next to his heart, with the space of an Isar (coin) between them.

(d) Someone who has difficulty in bowing down so low, should at least incline his head, and that is sufficient, if he cannot do more.

(a) Shimon ha'Pekuli arranged the Amidah in front of Rabban Gamliel in Yavneh.

(b) Shmuel ha'Katan composed 'Birchas ha'Tzedokim', alias 've'Lamalshinim'.

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