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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 27



(a) '*be*'Arba Sha'os' (the expression used by Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava) implies the whole fourth hour, which goes to prove that Rebbi Yehudah (whom Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava is quoting) holds 'Ad ve'Ad bi'Ch'lal'.

(b) 'Bechirta' means the chosen Masechta, because all of the testimonials which comprise it, are Halachah. Consequently, since Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava testifies like Rebbi Yehudah there, the Halachah must be like him.

(c) They stoned a cock in Yerushalayim because it pecked a baby to death. The Chidush is, that the ox (which the Torah orders to be stoned if it killed a person), incorporates, not only animals, but also birds.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah also testified that once wine becomes forty days old, it is no longer called 'wine from the vat' (which is invalid from being used for Nesachim), and is therefore Kasher for Nesachim.

(a) "ke'Chom ha'Yom" refers to mid-day, "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh ve'Namas", to the fourth hour.

(b) According to the Rabbanan, morning does indeed last until mid-day. However, the double Lashon "ba'Boker, ba'Boker" implies that one should divide the morning into two; the first half, for collecting, the second half, for melting.

(c) And although, according to Rebbi Yehudah, morning lasts until the *end* of the fourth hour, here, the extra "ba'Boker" indicates that they stopped collecting it one hour earlier.

(a) Since no clear ruling is issued regarding whether P'lag ha'Minchah is considered night (like Rebbi Yehudah) or not (like the Rabbanan), the Gemara concludes 'de'Avid ke'Mar Avid, u'de'Avid ke'Mar Avid' (provided however, that one does not treat the time in between P'lag ha'Minchah and nightfall as both day and night, by Davening both Minchah and Ma'ariv within that time period. Nor may one Daven Minchah *after* P'lag ha'Minchah one day, and Ma'ariv, the next).

(b) We learn from the episode of Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba and Rav 1. that one may Daven Ma'ariv on Erev Shabbos before nightfall; 2. that a Talmid may Daven behind his Rebbe; 3. that it is forbidden to walk in front of someone who is Davening the Amidah.

(c) Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi passed in front of someone who was Davening the Amidah, but at a distance of more than four Amos.




(a) Someone drives the Shechinah away if he greets or returns the greeting of his Rebbi in the same manner that he greets or returns the greetings of others (without adding the word 'Rebbi' in the former case, and 'Rebbi u'Mori' in the latter); or if he argues with his Rebbe's decisions, or quotes his Rebbe's statements without quoting the source.

(b) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was permitted to Daven behind Rav, because he was not just a Talmid, but a Talmid-Chaver.

(c) A Talmid should never address his Rebbe in the second person, so how could Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba ask Rav 'Mi Badalt'? unless he was a Talmid-Chaver.

(d) 'Mi Badalt' implies, that someone who wishes to Daven Kabalas Shabbos early, is obligated to accept Shabbos, and to do no more Melachah.

(a) Rebbi also agrees that all Melachos (even mi'de'Rabbanan) are forbidden once one has Davened. However, he did not go to take a bath after he had Davened Kabalas Shabbos (which would have contravened a de'Rabbanan), but to take a steam-bath - before the Chachamim added it to the existing prohibition of taking a bath.

(b) Abaye permitted Rav Dimi bar Livai to do a Melachah after he had Davened Kabalas Shabbos, only because he had *mistakenly* Davened, thinking that the sun had already set, and an erroneous acceptance of Shabbos is not valid, and he is obligated to Daven again. Consequently, the performing of Melachos is then permitted.

(c) It is only an individual whose Tefilah is invalidated and for whom it therefore remains Chol. But the Tefilah of a community who have Davened Kabalas Shabbos remains intact, because the Chachamim did not want to trouble a community to repeat it. Consequently, for them, it is Shabbos, and Melachah is forbidden.

(d) The community which Rebbi had instructed not to repeat the Amidah had Davened the Amidah for Motzei Shabbos on Shabbos.

(a) Someone who has Davened the Kabbalas Shabbos on Friday evening may recite Kidush immediately and ...

(b) ... someone who Davened the Motzei Shabbos Amidah on Shabbos afternoon is permitted to make Havdalah immediately (see Tosfos d.h. 'Tzali', who maintain that this is only permitted in cases of emergency).

(c) Melachos (even de'Rabbanan) are prohibited until nightfall.

(a) 'Tefilas ha'Erev Ein Lah Keva' means that Ma'ariv is not obligatory, a proof for the opinion which holds that Ma'ariv is Reshus.

(b) Rabban Gamliel, by whom Kavod ha'Torah was very strong (and who, it appears, was worried that a weakening in the authority of the Princehood would result in the disintegration of the entire structure of Torah she'be'Al Peh), was upset that Rebbi Yehoshua argued with his rulings. He therefore made a point of humiliating Rebbi Yehoshua by publicly challenging his ruling, and then by making him remain on his feet whilst everyone else sat.

(c)&(d) The people were incensed at Rabban Gamliel's maltreatment of Rebbi Yehoshua, particularly as this was the third time that he had treated him harshly. So they stopped Chutzpis ha'Turgeman (Rabban Gamliel's translator) in mid-sentence, and then went on to depose Rabban Gamliel from his Nesi'us.

(a) It would not have been refined to appoint Rebbi Yehoshua (who was the Av Beis-Din, and the greatest Talmid-Chacham present), to replace Rabban Gamliel.
Why not?
Since he was the cause (albeit an involuntary one) for Rabban Gamliel's deposal.

(b) Rebbi Akiva, who was next in line, was unfit for the Nesi'us, because he did not have Zechus Avos - and might therefore have been at the mercy of Rabban Gamliel's anger (without being able to call on Zechus Avos to protect him).

(c) They chose Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya, who had Zechus Avos (since he was the tenth generation descendent of Ezra), and he was in addition, an extremely wealthy man (who could use his wealth to intercede with the Emperor of Rome, when necessary).

(d) Although Rebbi Elazar was fit for the Nesi'us from every point of view, his beard was black, depriving him of the venerable appearance which brought with it the respect that a Nassi requires. Overnight however, eighteen rows of white hair appeared on his beard.

(a) Before accepting the position, Rebbi Elazar ban Azarya consulted his wife.

(b) Rebbi Elazar' ben Azarya's wife objected on the grounds that they may eventually depose him, just like they deposed Rabban Gamliel (a partial-prophecy, as it turned out).

(c) Rebbi Elazar countered this with the argument that one does not refrain from using a precious cup today because it might break tomorrow! Similarly, such a prestigious position is worth accepting for as long as it lasts.

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