(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Berachos 26



(a) No! It is not permitted to Daven facing an open bathroom, even if there is no Tzo'ah inside, or in front of an open bath-house which is not currently being used.

(b) When Rav Chisda permitted one to Daven in front of a bathroom, he was referring to a new bath-room that has not yet been used.

(c) Ravina's Sha'aleh, whether designating a bathroom renders it forbidden or not, concerns, not Davening *in front* of a new bathroom, but Davening *inside it*, which Ravina thought might be forbidden.

(a) The Persian bathrooms were considered covered - even when there was Tzo'ah, and it was permitted to recite the Shema in front of them.

(b) That is because the hole was situated at the end of a slope, so that the Tzo'ah would roll away and end up out of sight and of smell.

(a) We might have thought that Rebbi Yehudah would agree that a Meshameshes who saw Nidus is obligated to Tovel, since she was already obligated to Tovel before she saw Nidus (unlike the first two cases, who were already Tamei and Patur from Tevilah, when they saw Keri).

(b) However, we cannot say that, because that would mean that the Tana mentions the third case because of the Chachamim. But why should the Chachamim need even to mention it? If the first two cases are Chayav to Tovel, it is obvious that the woman in the third case is Chayav. It is only if Rebbi Yehudah argues with the Chachamim in this case too, that the Tana needs to insert it to inform us that here too, Rebbi Yehudah exempts her from Tevilah, in spite of the fact that her obligation to Tovel came first.

Hadran Alach, 'Mi she'Meiso'!


(a) Rebbi Yehudah holds that one may Daven Shachris up to four hours, and Minchah up to P'lag ha'Minchah.

(b) One may Daven Ma'ariv all night, and Musaf all day (according to the Tana of our Mishnah).

(c) Someone who forgot to Daven Shachris should Daven Minchah twice (first Minchah and then the Tashlumin for Shachris). He will not however, receive reward for Tefilah bi'Zemano, only for Tefilah. For Tefilah bi'Zemano, one has to Daven *before mid-day* like the ruling of our Mishnah (according to the Rabbanan).

(d) We might have thought that one cannot be Yotze for a missed Minchah through a Tashlumin at Ma'ariv, since, as we shall see later, the Tefilos follow the pattern of the Korbanos, and by the Korbanos, we have a principle 'Avar Yomo, Batel Korbano'.

(a) It is only possible to make up for a Tefilah that was deficient through a mistake (i.e. if one forgot to Daven - not by accident, in which case, no Tashlumin is necessary). A Tefilah that was omitted on purpose, is a "Me'uvas Lo Yuchal Liskon".

(b) This is evident from the wording in the Beraisa of "Me'uvas" etc., which uses the expression - 'she'Biteil' (which implies on purpose) instead of 'she'Ta'ah' (which would have meant 'by mistake').

(c) "ve'Chesaron Lo Yuchal Lehimanos" refers to someone who fails to join his friends, when they group together to perform a Mitzvah - it is an opportunity lost!




(a) Someone who forgot to Daven Minchah on Friday afternoon, must Daven the Amidah for Shabbos Ma'ariv twice.

(b) Someone who is Davening two Amidos on Motzei Shabbos, because he forgot to Daven Minchah, must Daven first the Amidah for Motzei Shabbos - with Havdalah, and then the Tashlumin, without Havdalah. This is because one is always obligated to Daven the current Tefilah before the Tashlumin.

(c) If he inverted the order, and inserted Havdalah in the second Amidah, then he is Yotze only with the second Amidah, the Amidah for Motzei Shabbos, but not the Tashlumin, which he must now repeat.
The Gemara gives the reason that he was not Yotze with the first Tefilah (for his Motzei Shabbos obligation) is because he omitted Havdalah, and someone who omits Havdalah is not Yotzei.

(d) The Beraisa explicitly writes that someone who omits Havdalah is nevertheless Yotze Tefilah, so how can the Gemara say that he was not Yotze with the first Tefilah, because he omitted Havdalah.
Although the Gemara remains with a Kashya, explains the Rosh, the answer is nevertheless plain (the Gemara does not say 'Tiyuvta', which implies that there is no answer, but 'Kashya', from which we can infer that they had an answer).
The real reason that one is not Yotze is not that stated in the Gemara, but because, by omitting Havdalah from the first Tefilah and inserting it in the second, it is clear that he intended to invert the order of the Tefilos and to Daven the Tashlumin first, in which case one is not even Yotze Bedieved.

(a)&(b) Someone who forgot either 'Mashiv ha'Ruach' or 've'Sein Tal u'Matar' (and who has finished the Amidah in the latter case, and even the third Berachah of 'ha'Keil ha'Kadosh' in the former, must repeat the Amidah.
(a) Avraham instituted Shachris - from "va'Yashkeim Avraham ba'Boker el ha'Makom Asher Amad Sham" (and 'Amidah' means Tefilah). Yitzchak, Minchah - from "va'Yeitzei Yitzchak la'Su'ach ba'Sadeh". Ya'akov instituted Ma'ariv - from "va'Yifga ba'Makom, va'Yalen Sham".

(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, it was not the Avos who instituted Tefilah, but the Anshei Kenesses ha'Gedolah, who introduced Tefilah, corresponding to the bi'daily Korban Tamid.

(c) Shachris corresponds to the Korban Tamid shel Boker, which had to be brought by mid-day according to the Chachamim, and by four hours according to Rebbi Yehudah. (Likewise, they argue over the final time for Tefilas Shachris).

(d) Minchah corresponds to the Korban Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim. Just like with Shachris, this has ramifications regarding the time of Tefilas Minchah.
According to the Chachamim, both are Kasher until nightfall, and according to Rebbi Yehudah, until P'lag ha'Minchah.

(a) Tefilas Ma'ariv corresponds to the burning of the limbs and the fat-pieces that remained from the day Korbanos, and which could be burnt all night. Similarly, one basically has all night in which to Daven Ma'ariv. Another Halachic off-shoot of the connection between Tefilas Ma'ariv and the burning of the fat-pieces is the fact that Ma'ariv is Reshus, in the same way as burning the limbs was (in the sense that if there were no limbs, then there was no Mitzvah).

(b) The Eivarim constitute all the limbs of the Olah; the Pedarim the fat-pieces of other Korbanos, whose limbs were eaten.

(a) Minchah Gedolah is half an hour after mid-day, It is the earliest time that one may Daven Minchah, because it was also the earliest time that one could bring the Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim. This is because that is when the evening shadows begin to stretch (so it is included in 'Bein ha'Arbayim').

(b) Minchah Ketanah is from two and half hours before night - the time that the Korban Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim was normally brought each day.

(c) P'lag ha'Minchah is half of Minchah Ketanah i.e. one and a quarter hours before night. It is the final time for Minchah, according to Rebbi Yehudah ,and the earliest time for Ma'ariv.

(d) If the Anshei Kenesses ha'Gedolah did not have a hand in the institution of the Tefilos (only the Avos), then why would we Daven Musaf? Even Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina therefore, has to agree that they too, re-instituted the Tefilos correspond to the bi'daily Korban Tamid and the Mussafim.

(a) The Sha'aleh whether according to Rebbi, 'Ad' is inclusive or exclusive, is simply whether the whole fourth hour is included in the time for Tefilas Shachris, or only until the beginning of the fourth hour.

(b) Thinking that P'lag ha'Minchah refers to the second half of the last three hours, the Gemara proves that 'Ad' must be exclusive, because, if it was inclusive, then 'Ad P'lag ha'Minchah' would mean until nightfall, in which case Rebbi Yehudah would not be arguing with the Rabbanan.

(c) On the other hand, if 'Ad' is exclusive, how will we understand Rebbi's Yehudah's statement that one may Daven Musaf only 'Ad Sheva Sha'os'. Now, if 'Ad' is exclusive, then 'Ad' Sheva Sha'os will mean until the beginning of the seventh hour (mid-day).
But Rebbi Yehudah rules that, if someone has to Daven Musaf and Minchah, then he should Daven first Musaf, whose time is limited, and then Minchah, for which he still has a few hours. This only makes sense if 'Ad Sheva Sha'os' *includes* the seventh hour, because then there is a half-hour overlap between Minchah Gedolah and the end of the seventh hour. Whereas if 'Ad Sheva Sha'os' would be exclusive, then the time to Daven Musaf would end at mid-day, and that of Minchah would only begin a half hour later, in which case he would never have such a dilemma (so how could Rebbi Yehudah discuss which of the two comes first)?

(d) When Rebbi Yehudah gives a person until P'lag ha'Minchah, he is not referring to the latter half of Minchah Ketanah, but to the former half, and 'P'lag' is indeed inclusive.

12) According to the Rabbanan, someone who has to Daven both Musaf and Minchah, should first Daven Minchah, in view of the fact that it is more common, and, in their opinion, he has until nightfall to Daven both Tefilos.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,