ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBerachos 24
(a) Rav Shisha B'rei de'Rav Idi would put his Tefilin on a bench and cover
them with a cloth.
(b) Rava left his Tefilin between the sheet and the cushion and then
instructed Rav Hamnuna B'rei de'Rav Yosef to go and fetch them, in order to
teach him the Halachah currently under discussion.
(c) Rav Yehudah wanted to learn from Shmuel, that two people who are lying
in bed together are permitted to turn round and recite the Shema, even
though their buttocks are touching. But Rav Yosef objected on the grounds
that it is only by a wife that Shmuel would permit this, since 'Ishto
ke'Gufo', but not by any other two people.
(a) The Gemara at first thought that the Beraisa which permits the two
people to recite the Shema by turning round, refers to a man and his wife,
and the Beraisa which requires a division between them, to two other
members of his family.
(b) But this answer is not acceptable, because the latter Beraisa uses the
term 'B'nei Beiso', which refers specifically to a wife - and still the
Beraisa requires a division (not like Rav Yosef - or like Shmuel)!
(See Tosfos, d.h. 've'ha'Tanya', who changes the wording in the Beraisa
from which the Gemara asks - from 'B'nei Beiso', to 'Ishto', making it a
different Beraisa from the one quoted earlier.)
(c) The Gemara concludes that, in fact, the two Beraisos actually dispute
whether it is permitted to read the Shema when lying in bed back to back -
even with one's wife.
(d) We see from the Beraisa which permits it, that buttocks do not
(a) There is no proof from the Beraisa that permits a naked woman to take
Chalah when she is seated, that buttocks do not constitute 'Ervah', because
it could be speaking when she is sitting in such a way that the ground
covers her buttocks, too.
(b) According to the second opinion, a girl from the age of eleven and a
boy from the age of twelve are no longer considered small with regard to
the Din in question ...
(c) ... provided that is, they have matured physically (i.e. "Shadayim
Nachonu u'Se'arayich Tzimei'ach").
Once they have turned twelve and thirteen respectively however, this is not
necessary (Rosh quoting the Rambam).
(d) Absolutely not! we may well rule like Shmuel regarding *putting one's
Tefilin* between the sheet and the cushion when one's wife is in the same
bed, but it does not follow that we will also rule like him when it comes
to *reciting the Shema* under the same circumstances.
(a) Rav Papa exclaimed 'Sa'ar Sa'ar' about a protruding pubic hair, meaning
that, from a Halachic point of view, there is no problem.
(b) It is strictly forbidden to look at any part of a woman's body, whether
it is more than a Tefach, or less. (Rashi restricts the prohibition to the
body of a married woman. It is not however clear what Rashi means, since
what difference will it make -as regards looking - whether the woman is
married or not?)
(c) What Rav Yitzchak meant when he said that 'Tefach be'Ishah Ervah' is
that it is forbidden to recite Keri'as Shema in front of one Tefach of a
woman's body which is normally covered - even if it is one's own wife, and
that less than a Tefach is not considered 'Ervah' and is permitted.
(d) The Torah lists the Kumaz (an ornament worn under the clothes) together
with the rings and bracelets - by the loot captured from Midyan - to teach
us that it is as much forbidden to look (in order to derive pleasure) at
the little finger of a woman (even though it is in no way a Makom Ervah,
since it is not customary to keep it covered) as it is to look at the Makom
(a) From the Pasuk "Gali Shok" etc., we learn that the calf of a woman is a
Makom Ervah, regarding reciting the Shema (Davening or learning Torah) in
front of it.
(b) And we learn from "Ki Kolech Naveh" that the voice of a woman is
considered an 'Ervah', and that it is therefore forbidden to listen to a
strange woman singing.
(c) Whilst "Sa'areich ke'Eider ha'Izim" teaches us that also the hair of a
woman is considered Ervah, with regard to reciting the Shema.
(a) How could Rebbi hang up his Tefilin, in face of the undisputed Beraisa
which states 'ha'Toleh Tefilav, Yislu Lo Chayav'. And it is about those who
hang up their Tefilin that the Torah writes (in the curses in Ki Savo)
"ve'Hayu Chayecha *Teluyim* Lecha Mineged".
(b) According to the second answer, it was his Tefilin-*bag* that Rebbi
hung by its straps, not his *Tefilin*.
(c) The Chidush is that the Tefilin-bag containing the Tefilin, may be
hung, and does need to be placed - like a Seifer-Torah does.
(a) Whenever Rebbi yawned, he would place his hand in front of his mouth.
(b) During the Amidah, he would not pick up his Talis from the floor, if it
fell down whilst he was Davening.
(c) Burping and yawning during Davening is a sign of conceit only if it is
done deliberately, but not when it comes inadvertently.
(d) Sneezing is a good sign - that just as he has been made to feel content
down here, so too, will he be made to feel content in Heaven.
It is letting off a smell during the Amidah which is a bad sign, and which
demonstrates that he is disgusting.
(a) Someone who Davens the Amidah loudly enough for others to hear, has
little faith (he fails to believe that Hashem can hear his Tefilos - even
when nobody else can).
(b) And if he actually raises his voice, he is compared to the false
prophets (who, like the prophets of Ba'al, would scream their prayers, to
make sure that their gods heard them whatever they were doing.
(c) Rebbi spat into his cloak or his scarf, whereas the Beraisa, which
compares spitting during the Amidah to someone who spits in front of a
king, is referring to someone who spits on the floor.
(d) Rav Asi would turn round and spit behind him. He did not spit into his
cloak etc., because he was particularly finicky.
(a) Rebbi Aba kept his distance from Rav Yehudah, because he had in mind to
move from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael, which Rav Yehudah maintained, was subject
to a La'av mi'Divrei Nevi'im ("Bavelah Yuva'u, ve'Sham Yihyu" - Yirmiyahu).
(b) According to the first Lashon, Rebbi Aba heard that someone who
emitted a smell during the Amidah, should wait for the smell to stop,
before resuming the Amidah.
According to the second Lashon, he heard that someone who felt that he was
about to emit a smell (and was unable to control it) should move four Amos
back and say: 'Ribono Shel Olam, You created us full of holes and tubes.
Our disgrace and shame whilst we are alive is revealed and known before
You, and our end will be worms!' He then resumes the Amidah to the
beginning of the Berachah where he left off.
(c) Everyone agrees that one must make a barrier between his *eyes* and his
Ervah, and that is why he must press the blanket to his neck, in order to
create that barrier.
But others maintain that he must also create a barrier between his *heart*
and his Ervah, which is why they require him to press the blanket down on
(a) Rav Chisda commented that if Rebbi Yochanan himself were to tell him
that one may place one's hands to one's mouth and recite the Shema in a
dirty alleyway, he would not accept it.
(b) Rav Huna forbade a Talmid-Chacham to stand in a dirty alley-way, since
a Talmid-Chacham is always thinking Torah-thoughts, and it is forbidden to
think Divrei-Torah in a dirty place.
(c) Rav Huna forbids a Talmid-Chacham to stand still and think Divrei-Torah
in a dirty alleyway, so how can he quote Rebbi Yochanan, who permits one to
recite the Shema with his hand over his mouth (which will hardly deter his
thoughts) whilst passing through a dirty alleyway?
(d) Rav Huna only forbids a Talmid-Chacham to *stand still* (thereby making
it into a Makom Kavua) and think Divrei Torah, but not to think Divrei
Torah whilst he is walking through.
(a) The only two places where Rebbi Yochanan prohibits thinking Divrei
Torah, are the public bath-house and the bathroom.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan must be speaking when one is passing through, because to
think Divrei Torah whilst standing still is forbidden even in dirty
alleyways, as we explained earlier.
(c) What Rebbi Yochanan was telling Rebbi Avahu, that as far as *he* was
concerned, one did not need to go back at all, since, in his opinion, it
was permitted to recite the Shema whilst walking through dirty alleyways
(provided he kept his mouth covered). Rebbi Avahu however, maintained that
reciting the Shema whilst walking through such places was forbidden at all
costs. In that case, Rebbi Yochanan told him, at which point he would
resume the Shema would depend upon how long he had waited.
(d) It is according to Rav Chisda, like whom this particular Tana holds,
that the Beraisa quotes these Pesukim - to say that someone who continues
to read the Shema whilst walking through dirty alleyways, is treating the
Mitzvos like a bad thing, and for him they will not be a source of long
life, but to the contrary ...
And the Torah describes him as one who treats the word of Hashem with
On the other hand, if he does interrupt the Shema until he leaves them, he
will be rewarded with long life.
(a) Rav Huna permits someone to recite the Shema, even if the top part of
his body is not covered.
(b) For Tefilah, he must also cover the rest of his body, because in
Tefilah, one stands before Hashem.
(c) If someone entered the bathroom with his Tefilin, he should place his
hand over them until he has finished the first flow. Then he goes out and
removes them, before continuing with the second flow.
(d) Stopping immediately - in the middle of a flow - could be dangerous,
causing an illness which causes the stomach to swell.