ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBerachos 21
(a) The source for Bensching is the Pasuk in Devarim "ve'Achalta ve'Sava'ta
u'Veirachta" ... .
(b) The source for the Berachah before Torah-study is the Pasuk in Devarim
"Ki Sheim Hashem Ekra, Havu Godel L'Elokeinu".
(a) Rebbi Yochanan argues that if eating, which does not require a Berachah
(min ha'Torah) before, requires a Berachah afterwards; then Torah-study,
which does require a Berachah before, should certainly require one
(b) Similarly, he argues that, if Torah-study, which does not require a
Berachah afterwards, requires one before, then surely eating, which does
require a Berachah afterwards, should require one before!
(c) It is possibly due to the physical benefit that one derived from the
food, that one recites a Berachah after eating - a reason that is not
applicable to someone who has studied Torah.
And it is possibly because Torah brings a person to life in the World to
Come that one recites a Berachah before studying it - a reason that does
not apply to someone who is about to eat.
(d) In addition, our Mishnah requires a Ba'al Keri to recite a Berachah
*after* eating but not *before*. Why the difference?
It can only be because, whereas Bensching is d'Oraysa, the Berachah before
eating is only de'Rabbanan - not like Rebbi Yochanan, who learns it from a
Kal va'Chomer from Birchas ha'Torah, which would make it d'Oraysa?
(a) According to Rav Yehudah, the intrinsic obligation of reciting Keri'as
Shema (when one anyway says 'Emes ve'Yatziv') is only mi'de'Rabbanan.
Whereas 'Emes ve'Yatziv' is d'Oraysa (see also Tosfos d.h. 'Safek').
(b) "u've'Shochbecha u've'Kumecha", according to him, refers to the Mitzvah
of Torah-study (as we shall see later).
(c) Keri'as Shema is preferable, explains the Gemara, because it contains
two things: Ol Malchus Shamayim and Yetzi'as Mitzrayim; whereas 'Emes
ve'Yatziv' contains only the latter.
(d) Rebbi Elazar maintains that someone who is unsure whether he has
Davened the Amidah or not, is Patur from Davening again. Rebbi Yochanan
says 'u'Levai she'Yispalel Adam Kol ha'Yom Kulo'! - so he should 'repeat'
(a) Someone who remembers in the middle of his Tefilah that he has already
Davened the Amidah, is obligated to stop immediately, even in the middle of
a Berachah. Whereas someone who remembers in the middle of a weekday Amidah
that it is Shabbos, should first finish the Berachah.
(b) This is because, whereas in the former case, the Berachah that he is
currently Davening, is a Berachah le'Vatalah (since he has already
Davened), this is not the case by someone who Davens a weekday Berachah on
Shabbos. Why not?
Because in reality, the full Amidah is just as appropriate on Shabbos as it
is on a weekday, only Chazal relieved us of the bother of Davening such a
long Tefilah on Shabbos. Consequently, any Berachah that one *does* recite
is not a Berachah le'Vatalah.
(c) Had Shmuel made only the first statement, we would have thought that it
is only in an individual Tefilah that one must stop even in the middle of a
Berachah, but if it is a question of Davening be'Tzibur, he should continue
- because, Davening on one's own as opposed to Davening with a Tzibur, is
considered as if he had not Davened at all.
(d) Whereas had Shmuel made only the latter statement, we would have said
that it is only forbidden to commence the Amidah from the beginning, but
that, if he is already in the middle, he should conclude it.
(a) Someone who does not bow down at Modim together with the community,
conveys the impression that he is denying the sovereignty of the one to
whom everybody else is bowing down.
(b) Rav Huna maintains that an individual who is Davening with the
community, but misses Kedushah with them, may say Kedushah on his own when
he reaches that point. Consequently, he need not be concerned about missing
Kedushah be'Tzibur. Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi holds that Kedushah may only be
said together with the 'Tzibur.
(c) We learn from "ve'Nikdashti be'Soch Benei Yisrael" that a Davar
she'bi'Kedushah (including Borchu, Kedushah etc.) can only be said when
there are ten men.
We learn a Gezeirah Shavah "*be'Soch* B'nei Yisrael" from "Hibadlu
*mi'Toch* ha'Eidah ha'Zos" (referring to the congregation of Korach), and
another Gezeirah Shavah "*Eidah*" from "Ad Masai *la'Eidah* ha'Ra'ah
ha'Zos" (written in connection with the ten evil spies. The first Gezeirah
Shavah teaches us that a Davar she'bi'Kedushah requires a community, and
the second one, that a community consists of ten men.
The Gemara concludes that although 'Amen Yehei Shemei Raba' is greater than
all other forms of Davar she'bi'Kedushah, one may nevertheless not
interrupt the Amidah in order to answer it.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah comments: 'Is it because of the Torah's placement of the
Parshah of a witch next to that of bestiality that authorizes us to kill
her by stoning (the most stringent of all the deaths)?
*He* learns Sekilah by a witch from Ov and Yid'oni (two branches of
witchcraft, which the Torah takes out of their context sentencing them to
Sekilah, in order learn from them, all the other branches of witchcraft
(together with which they were originally incorporated).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the juxtaposition of "Lo Yikach ... ve'Lo
Yegaleh Kenaf Aviv" and "ve'Nasan ha'Ish ha'Shochev Imah", that the former
Pasuk, like the latter, speaks about a woman whom his father raped.
(c) In the first set of Pesulim. Rebbi Yehudah rejects the Limud of
Semuchin (learning by juxtaposition); in the latter, he himself learns from
So the Gemara concludes that Rebbi Yehudah learns Semuchin in Seifer
Devarim, but not in the other books of the Torah.
(d) We have just proved that Rebbi Yehudah also learns Semuchin in Devarim.
why then, does he not learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim
"ve'Hoda'ata le'Vanecha " ... and "Yom Asher Amadta" ... that words of
Torah are forbidden to a Ba'alei Keri, just like at Har Sinai.
(e) The Gemara answers that Rebbi Yehudah does indeed learn this Semuchin,
but in a different way. He learns like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi would do
many years after him: namely, that someone who learns with his children
(and grandchildren) Torah (creating another link in the chain of Torah
that begun at Sinai) it is as if he himself received the Torah from Har
(a) The final case does not need to be mentioned according to the
Chachamim, because if they are obligated to Tovel for Tum'as Keri etc., in
a case when the *Zivus or the Nidus* came first (and they were not yet
obligated to Tovel when they saw Keri), then how much more so when they saw
*Keri* first (and the obligation to Tovel preceded the Nidus or Zivus). The
Mishnah must have included it to tell us that, even there (where the
obligation to Tovel came first), she becomes Patur- according to Rebbi
Yehudah - when she sees blood.
And we can deduce from here that, had she not seen blood afterwards, even
Rebbi Yehudah would agree that a Meshameshes (as well as a Ba'al Keri) is
obligated to Tovel before learning Torah.
(b) But that clashes with his own statement in our Mishnah, where he says
that a Ba'al Keri may recite Berachos without having to Tovel?
(c) The Gemara wants to answer that when Rebbi Yehudah said 'Mevarech', he
meant not verbally, but in his heart.
(d) This answer is unacceptable, because Rebbi Yehudah himself (in a
Beraisa), argues with Rebbi Meir, who holds that a Ba'al Keri only thinks
the Berachos before eating. In his (Rebbi Yehudah's) opinion, he actually
recites them *verbally*.
(e) The Gemara finally answers that Rebbi Yehudah does permit a Ba'al Keri
to recite the Berachos over food verbally, in spite of the fact that he
forbids him to study Torah. This is because he gives the Berachos over food
the status of Hilchos Derech Eretz, which he permits without Tevilah.