ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBerachos 15
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba quoting Rebbi Yochanan, considers someone who
washes his hands, puts on Tefilin, recites the Shema and says the Amidah as
if he had built a Mizbei'ach and sacrificed a Korban on it.
(b) Since the Pasuk writes 'Erchatz be'Nikayon Kapai', and not "Architz
Kapai", Rava adds, it is as if he had Toveled his whole body (and has now
(c) Rava himself agrees with that Talmid-Chacham, who learnt from the same
Pasuk that someone who has no water with which to wash, should just wipe
his hands with anything that will clean them (such as dust, earth and
pieces of wood).
(a) Someone who is traveling, is obligated to search for water up to four
Mil (approximately four Kilometers) in a forward direction. In any other
direction, one is obligated to search up to - and excluding - one Mil
(eighteen minutes walking distance).
(b) For the Shema, one should not search at all, because the time for Shema
is far more limited, and Chazal were therefore afraid that in the process
of searching for water, the time for Keri'as Shema might just expire.
(a) Rebbi Yossi learns from the word "Shema" that one must hear what one is
(b) The Tana Kama learns from the word "Shema", that one may recite the
Shema in any language that one understands. Rebbi Yossi infers both
Derashos from "Shema".
(a) A Cheresh who can speak but not hear should not separate Terumah,
because he cannot fulfill the obligation of reciting the Berachah over the
(b) Rav Chisda thinks that the author of the Mishnah in Terumos must be
Rebbi Yossi, who disqualifies 'Shema' if it is not heard, because the
recital of Shema is d'Oraysa, whereas by the Berachah over the separation
of Ma'asros, which is only de'Rabbanan, even Rebbi Yossi will agree that
the omission of the Berachah, will not prevent one from being Yotze with
It cannot be Rebbi Yehudah (who is the Tana Kama of our Mishnah), he
maintains, because, in his opinion, Rebbi Yehudah permits one - even
Lechatchilah - to read the Shema without hearing oneself.
(c) The Gemara nevertheless tries to prove that Rebbi Yehudah only permits
Bedieved someone who does not hear himself reading the Shema - from the
word 'ha'Korei', which implies only Bedieved.
And if that is so, the author of the Mishnah in Terumos could well be Rebbi
(d) Our Mishnah may well begin with 'ha'Korei' (Bedieved) not an account of
Rebbi Yehudah (who permits reciting the Shema even Lechatchilah, without
hearing what one is saying), but to tell us how far Rebbi Yossi goes - that
even Bedieved, he disqualifies the Shema.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah, quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, learns that one needs
to hear reciting the Shema, because the Torah writes "Shema Yisrael" etc.
Whereas according to Rebbi Meir, it all depends on the Kavanah, as the
Torah writes "Asher Anochi ... Al Levavecha"; saying it aloud is
(b) There are now two ways of resolving our Mishnah with the Beraisa of Rav
Yehudah Brei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi: Either Rebbi Yehudah himself (in our
Mishnah) holds that one is even permitted to read the Shema Lechatchilah,
without hearing the words, and in the latter Beraisa, he is only quoting
the opinion of Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya, with which he does not agree.
Or, Rebbi Yehudah does agree with Rebbi Elazar, and in our Mishnah, he
specifically means 'ha'Korei' - Bedieved; and the author of the Beraisa
quoted by Rav Yehudah Brei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, is Rebbi Meir, quoted
in the latter Beraisa.
(a) The Gemara wants to say that just as when a Shoteh and a Katan read the
Megilah, one is not even Yotze Bedieved, so too, should the Cheresh not be
Yotze Bedieved either (like the opinion of Rebbi Yossi).
(b) It is possible for the author of both the Reisha and the Seifa to be
Rebbi Yehudah, if the Reisha and the Seifa are dealing with two different
kinds of Katan (and we will need to amend the wording of the Mishnah
accordingly). The Reisha, which disqualifies the reading of a Katan, is
speaking about a Katan who has not yet reached the age of Chinuch (Rashi
seems to learn that his reading is *Kasher* Bedieved - but this is hard to
understand), whereas the Seifa, which permits a Katan to read even
Lechatchilah, speaks about a Katan who *has* reached the age of Chinuch.
(a) The author of the Beraisa 'Lo Yevarech Adam Birchas ha'Mazon be'Libo,
ve'Im Beirach, Yatza' is Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya - and possibly Rebbi
(b) Had Rav Chisda quoting Shilo, ruled like Rebbi Yehudah, we may have
thought that Rebbi Yehudah is lenient even Lechatchilah (like Rav Chisda
himself maintains (on Amud 'Aleph'), and had he ruled like Rebbi Yehudah in
the name of Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya, we would have said, that when Rebbi
Elazar ben Azarya requires someone who is reading the Shema to hear what he
is saying, he means that even Bedieved, he will not be Yotze, if he does
not. Consequently, both rulings are necessary.
(a) It is not possible to accept a statement which invalidates all Berachos
that the reciter does not hear, because in that case, what will we do with
the Beraisa that validates Birchas ha'Mazon under such circumstances?
(b) So the Gemara amends the original statement to read that the Machlokes
only concerns Keri'as Shema, where the Torah writes "Shema Yisrael", but as
far as other Berachos is concerned, everyone agrees that one is Yotze, even
if the reciter did not hear what he said.
(c) "Haskeis u'Shema Yisrael" refers to the Mitzvah of Torah-study, and
taking the word "Haskeis" to be a derivative of 'le'Kateis' (to cut up), it
means that one should be willing to suffer in order to study Torah.
(a) Both as regards the Din of hearing oneself reciting the Shema, and that
of expressing the words carefully, we rule leniently, that one is Yotze
(Bedieved) either way.
(b) How do we explain the juxtaposition of "Rechem" (the womb) and
"She'ol" the grave), unless it is to compare them, tell us that just as the
womb takes in (dead matter) and gives out (live), so too, the grave, takes
in the person when he dies, and will later give him out (when he is alive)
- a clear indication of Techi'as ha'Meisim.
(c) If the womb, which takes in quietly, gives out with cries of joy (and
Mazel-Tov), how much more so the grave, which takes in with cries of
sorrow, will give out with cries of joy!
(a) "u'Chesavtam" teaches us that even the commands - i.e. "u'Keshartam"
and "u'Chesavtam" must be inserted in the Parshiyos of the Tefilin and the
(b)&(c) The author of this Beraisa is Rebbi Yehudah, who learns by Sotah
that, because the Torah writes "ha'Alos ha'Eileh", one only needs to write
the actual curses on the parchment on which one writes the Parshah of Sotah
(and not the commands). Here, where the Torah does not write any such
expression, "ve'Chasav" implies that everything needs to be written.
(d) It is not because "ve'Chasav" is intrinsically restrictive that the
Torah needs write "u'Chesavtam" (as the Gemara initially believed), but
because otherwise, we would have compared "ve'Chasav" here to "ve'Chasav"
by Sotah - to exclude the commands from the Parshiyos. Therefore, the Torah
found it necessary to write "u'Chesavtam" that here, the writing must be
complete ('Kesivah Tamah'), and that the commands must be inserted, too.
(a)&(b) "ve'Limadtem" teaches us that one must recite the words of the
Shema with care ('Limud Tamah') - e.g. to make a break between "Al" and
"Levavecha", "Eisev" and "be'Sadcha", "va'Avadtem" and "Meheirah" and
"ha'Kanaf" and "Pesil" (See also Tosfos d.h. 'Bein').
(c) Someone who recites the Shema with care, can expect that, in time to
come, the angels will cool down Gehinom for him, assuming that he will be
sentenced to spend some time there (the normal temperature is sixty times
that of the fire with which we are acquainted).