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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 13



(a) 'Avram' is the acronym of 'Av la'Aram' father of Aram (Naharayim, where Avraham lived, and some say, where he was also born); whereas 'Avraham' is the acronym of 'Av la'Hamon (Goyim)' - father of a multitude (of nations). 'Sarai' means '*my* Princess' (of the nation where she lived); but 'Sarah' means 'Princess' - of the whole world.

(b) We learn from "ve'Haya Shimcha Avraham", that someone who calls Avraham 'Avram' transgresses an Asei.

(c) Rebbi Eliezer adds that there is even a La'av as well, since the Torah writes "ve'Lo Yikarei Shimcha Od Avram".

(a) When Hashem said to Avraham "Sarah Ishtecha, Lo Sikra Shemah Sarai" ..., he was not introducing a La'av, but simply instructing Avraham to change Sarai's name.

(b) It is impossible to say that someone who calls Yisrael 'Ya'akov' will also transgress a La'av, whatever the Pasuk says, since Hashem himself referred to him as Ya'akov after the change.

(c) When Nechemyah referred to Avraham as Avram, he was not calling him by his old name, but was merely praising Hashem for having taken the man who used to be called 'Avram' etc.

(a) Someone who is reading the Shema fulfills the Mitzvah, only if he has Kavanah.

(b) No! There is no proof from here that Mitzvos need Kavanah before one can fulfill them, because the Kavanah here could also refer to the intention to read it properly, and not just to correct the Seifer, when one might pay attention to the consonants, but not to the vowels.

(c) 'Honors' in our Mishnah means someone whom one is obligated to honor, whereas 'fears' means someone who, he is afraid, will kill him if he fails to greet him. See Rashash - also Rambam and Shulchan, who 'someone whom one fears' differently (The Rambam's interpretation of 'honors'also differs.)

(d) In the middle of a chapter, Rebbi Yehudah permits one to reply even to a person whom one honors, whereas in between chapters, one may reply to anybody's greeting.

(a) Between chapters means: between the first and second Berachos of Shema (after 'Yotzer ha'Me'oros'); between the second Berachah and 'Shema'; between 'Shema' and 've'Haya Im Shamo'a'; between 've'Haya Im Shamo'a' and 'va'Yomer'; between 'va'Yomer' and 'Emes ve'Yatziv'.

(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is forbidden to interrupt at all, between 'va'Yomer' and 'Emes ve'Yatziv'.

(c) 'Shema' precedes 've'Haya Im Shamo'a', because one first accepts the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven before that of the Mitzvos. And 've'Haya Im Shamo'a' precedes 'va'Yomer', because 've'Haya Im Shamo'a' applies by night as well as by day, whereas (the main issue in)'va'Yomer' only applies by day.

(a) Rebbi learns from "*ve'Hayu* ha'Devarim ha'Eileh" that the words of the Shema must be recited just as they are written (i.e. in Lashon ha'Kodesh).

(b) The Rabbanan, who say that the Shema may be recited in any language, learn this from the word "Shema", which implies in any language that you understand.

(c) Rebbi learns from "Shema" that it is not sufficient to mouth the words, but that one is obligated to actually hear what one is saying. According to the Rabbanan however, this is not necessary, because they follow the opinion of those who say that one is Yotze, even if one did not hear what one said.

(d) From "ve'Hayu", the Rabbanan learn that the Pesukim and the words must be read in the order in which they appear in the Torah. Rebbi learns that from the extra 'Hey' in "*ha*'Devarim".

(a) The Gemara asks that, from the fact that Rebbi requires a Pasuk to teach us that Shema must be recited in Lashon ha'Kodesh, it seems that everything else that one reads, can be read in any language (What 'everything else means is not so clear, because it can only pertain to things which the Torah obligates to read - see Tosfos d.h. 'be'Lashon ha'Kodesh').

(b) The Gemara however, refutes this, because, even if Rebbi were to hold that everything else must be read in Lashon ha'Kodesh, he would still require a Pasuk for Keri'as Shema. Why?
Because of the Pasuk "Shema", from which the Rabbanan derive that the Shema can be read in any language. If not for "ve'Hayu", Rebbi might have learnt like that, too.

(c) Rebbi Eliezer learns from "ha'Devarim *ha'Eileh*" that only up to there (until "Al Levavecha" - see Tosfos d.h. 'Ad') requires Kavanah.

(d) Rebbi Akiva learns from "Asher Anochi Metzavecha ha'Yom Al Levavecha" that the entire first Parshah requires Kavanah (because "Metzavecha" (as opposed to "Tzivisicha", which is confined to the past -i.e. the Pesukim which have already been read) incorporates the future - i.e. the Pesukim which follow.




(a) Rav Zutra cannot possibly mean that the Mitzvah of reading applies only before "Al Levavecha" and not afterwards, because, just as the Torah writes *after* "Al Levavecha", "le'Daber Bam", so too, does it write *before* "Al Levavecha", "ve'Dibarta Bam".

(b) What Rav Zutra therefore must mean is that *before* "Al Levavecha", there is a Mitzvah of Kavanah (besides that of reading), whereas *after* "Al Levavecha", only the Mitzvah of reading applies, but not that of Kavanah.

(c) "ve'Samtem es Devarai Eileh *Al Levavchem*", according to Rav Zutra, does not refer to the Mitzvah of Kavanah, but to the Din of Rav Yitzchak, who learns from there that the Tefilin should be placed on the upper arm next to the heart.

(d) According to Rav Yashiyah, the Pasuk "Al Levavchem ...*le'Daber Bam"* refers, not to the Mitzvah of Keri'as Shema, but to the Mitzvah of Talmud-Torah - meaning that of teaching one's children Torah, to enable them *to speak* about them (this is evident from the fact that "le'Daber Bam" appears in the Pasuk of "ve'Limadtem Osom es Beneichem").

(a) Rebbi Meir holds that only the first Pasuk of the Shema requires Kavanah (It is taken for granted that the Pasuk "Baruch Sheim" is included).

(b) Someone who draws out 'Echad', will be granted long life.

(c) One should draw out the 'Kamatz' and the 'Daled', but not swallow the 'Ches' in the process.

(d) One should spend as long over the 'Echad' as one needs to crown Hashem in the Heaven above, on the earth below and in all four directions. (This is actually hinted in the word "Echad", since in Kabbalistic terms, the 'Aleph' represents 'Atzilus', Hashem's Throne, so to speak, the 'Ches', the eight levels from 'Binah' through to 'Malchus', and the 'Daled', the four directions of 'Olam ha'Zeh'. This also explains why many people nod their heads up and down and in all four directions whilst saying the word "Echad").

(a) According to Rav Nasan bar Mar Ukva, one need stand still only until "Al Levavecha".

(b) Rebbi Chiya told Rav, that when Rebbi placed his hands in front of his eyes, *that* was when he was in the process of accepting on himself 'Ol Malchus Shamayim'.

(c) Bar Kapara maintained that it was because Rebbi did not recite the rest of Shema (including the Parshah of Tzitzis, which incorporates the mention of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim), that he adopted the habit of always finding something to discuss connected with Yetzi'as Mitzrayim (whereas, according to Rebbi Shimon bar Rebbi, who insisted that his father would always complete the Shema later, that would not be necessary.

(d) But Rebbi Shimon retorted that he only did that because, by the time Rebbi would conclude the Shema, the time for reciting the Shema had passed, so he would find a Sugya which was connected with Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, in order to fulfill this Mitzvah within the time of Zeman Keri'as Shema.

(a) Rav Nachman told Dar his servant to make sure that he was awake for the first Pasuk of the Shema, which is min ha'Torah, (like the opinion of Rebbi Meir in 8a.), but not to push him beyond that point.

(b) Considering that a Perakdan (someone who is lying on his back) is not even permitted to sleep like that, what is the Chidush of Rav Yosef, who says that it is forbidden for a Perakdan to recite the Shema?

(c) The Gemara explains that it is only literally a Perakdan who is forbidden to sleep like that, but that he is permitted to sleep leaning on his side. Rav Yosef is coming to teach us that, as far as reciting the Shema is concerned, even *that* is prohibited.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan was permitted even to recite the Shema leaning to one side, because he was very fat.

(a) Having informed us that one may greet someone whom one honors in between paragraphs, and even someone whom one fears in the middle of a paragraph, is it not obvious that one is permitted to reply to *their* greetings?

(b) The Gemara changes Rebbi Meir's wording to read 'bi'Perakim, Sho'el Mipnei ha'Kavod, ve'Ein Tzarich Lomar she'Hu Meishiv; u've'Emtza, Sho'el Mipnei ha'Yir'ah, ve'Ein Tzarich Lomar she'Hu Meishiv'.

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