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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 11



(a) Beis Shamai argue that, if by "be'Shochbecha u've'Kumecha" the Torah had meant at the *time* that one lies down and the *time* that one rises, then it should have written "ba'Erev u'va'Voker".

(b) "be'Shivtecha be'Vei'secha" comes to teach us that someone who is performing another Mitzvah, is exempt from reading the Shema ('ha'Osek be'Mitzvah, Patur min ha'Mitzvah'); and "u've'Lechtecha va'Derech", that even a Chasan (who is not Patur because he is actually *performing* a Mitzvah, but because he is *worried* about performing it) is Patur.

(c) "be'Shivte*cha*" and "u've'Lechte*cha*" imply that one is busy with one's personal affairs, precluding someone who is busy with a Mitzvah.

(d) Someone who marries a widow is not exempt, since the worry (that he might not find her to be a virgin) which causes his exemption in the case of a virgin, does not apply here.
Someone who receives news that his ship is sinking is, of course worried, but since that worry does not directly concern a Mitzvah, he is not exempt from reciting the Shema.

(a) An Aveil is not exempt from the Shema and from all the Mitzvos because, like the man whose ship is sinking, he is not worried about performing a Mitzvah (the Mitzvah of mourning has nothing to do with worrying).

(b) The reason that he is exempt from Tefilin (on the first day) is because Tefilin are called 'Pe'er' (glory), as they are described by Yechezkel, and a mourner is not in a state of glory (for him, it is -'Eifer' (ashes) instead of 'Pe'er').

(c) Certainly, the Beraisa which exempts someone who is performing a Mitzvah from reciting the Shema, and from performing other Mitzvos, goes according to Beis Hillel as well. Now that the Torah has obligated someone who is walking on a journey to recite the Shema, Beis Hillel will say that it lies inherent in the Torah's words that one is permitted to recite the Shema whilst walking?

(a) Rebbi Yishmael was leaning (before the time to recite the evening Shema fell due). Then, when the time to read the Shema arrived, and Rebbi Elazar, who had previously been sitting up, reclined to recite the Shema (like Beis Shamai), Rebbi Yishmael sat up - much to the annoyance of Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah.

(b) Rebbi Yishmael explained, that whereas Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah had followed the opinion of Beis Shamai, *he* had followed that of Beis Hillel.

(c) Rebbi Yishmael added 've'Lo Od' etc., to say that, even though Beis Hillel also agree that one may lean in the evening and stand in the morning, that did not justify Rebbi Elazar's actions in deliberately leaning, since that would cause others to rule like Beis Shamai, which is why he had leaned.

(a) Rav Yosef disagrees with the Beraisa; in his opinion, someone who follows Beis Shamai, is not even Yotze. He proves this from a Mishnah in Succah, where the elders of Beis Shamai accompanied the elders of Beis Hillel on a visit to Rebbi Yochanan ben ha'Chornis, who was sick. They found him sitting in a Succah that was Kasher only according to Beis Hillel, but not according to Beis Shamai. According to the testimony of the elders of Beis Hillel, no-one said anything. But, according to the elders of Beis Shamai, they did indeed object, and say 'If that is what you have always been doing, then you have never fulfilled the Mitzvah of Succah in your life'!
So we see, that someone who does like Beis Hillel, is not Yotze in the opinion of Beis Shamai. Similarly, someone who leans like Shamai, will not be Yotze the Mitzvah of Shema, according to Beis Hillel.
(a) When the Mishnah writes 'one long Berachah and one short one', it is referring to the two Berachos after the night-Shema (which is the last case mentioned).

(b) A short Berachah, according to some commentaries, means that it does not begin with a Berachah.

(c) 'she'Lo Lachtom, Eino Rashai Lachtom' refers to Berachos that are literally short, such as the Berachos over fruit and over Mitzvos.




(a) Chazal changed the word "Ra" in the Pasuk to 'ha'Kol', because of the unpleasant connotations of the word "Ra".

(b) The reason that Chazal retained the word 'Choshech', not changing it to 'Nogah', is because they wanted to mention the measure of night ('Choshech') by day, and that of day by night.

(c) By Midas Yom ba'Layla', the Gemara is referring to what we say every night 'Golel Or Mipnei Choshech', ve'Choshech Mipnei Or'.

(a) The Rabbanan learn from "Ahavas Olam Ahavtich" that the correct text should read 'Ahavas Olam' and not 'Ahavah Raba'.

(b) Tosfos therefore writes that Chazal made a compromise: 'Ahavah Raba' in the morning, and 'Ahavas Olam' in the evening.

(c) Once one has recited the Shema, it is no longer necessary to recite the Birchos ha'Torah, because one has been Yotze Birchas ha'Torah with that of 'Ahavah Raba'.

(a) Rava says that one is obligated to recite Birchos ha'Torah even for learning Gemara, too.

(b) The proof for this is from Rav, who would wash his hands, recite Birchos ha'Torah and teach his Talmidim Sifra de'Bei Rav (which is equivalent to Gemara).

(c) Some would say just 'La'asok be'Divrei Sorah', others would add 've'Ha'arev Na' etc., and others again 'Asher Bachar Banu'. The Gemara therefore rules that one should say them all.

(d) The Berachah of 'Asher Bachar Banu' is the best of the Berachos, because it incorporates thanks to Hashem, and praise of the Torah and of Yisrael (and Chazal have said 'Hashem, Yisrael and Torah are one').

(a) The Memuneh was the deputy Kohen Gadol.

(b) The three Berachos which the Kohanim would recite were 'Emes ve'Yatziv', 'Retzei' and 'Modim'.

(c) Every Shabbos, they would add a Berachah for the group that was terminating that week's Avodah.

(a) Rebbi Zerika, quoting Resh Lakish, said that the Berachah recited by the Kohanim was 'Yotzer Or'.

(b) Resh Lakish deduced from the fact that the Kohanim recited only one of the Birchos Shema, that the Berachos do not deter each other (it is possible to recite one of the Berachos without the other). Now if the Berachah concerned was that of 'Ahavah Rabah', then the deduction would not be correct. Why not?
Because it may just be that they omitted 'Yotzer Or' because it was too early to recite it then. But later, when the time fell due, they recited it then.
(Whereas now that the Berachah which they recited was 'Yotzer Or', the only reason to omit Ahavah Rabah would have been due to a lack of time).

(c) The proof however, falls away, if we explain Resh Lakish to mean, not that they *the Berachos* do not deter each other, but that *the order* of the Berachos does not matter. In that case, the Berachah which they recited, may well have been 'Ahavah Raba', like Rebbi Yochanan maintains, and the Beraisa is indeed telling us what we just stated - that they only recited 'Ahavah Raba' at that stage (because it was too early). And later, when the time fell due, they said 'Yotzer Or'. But the Berachos do, in fact, deter each other, and to recite the one Berachah without the other, is unacceptable.

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