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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 6



(a) Each vine in a vineyard would be mounted on a mound of earth, which was surrounded by a ditch. Much in the same way as the mound of earth with the vine are completely surrounded by the ditch, so too, says Abaye, are we completely surrounded by the Mazikin.

(b) There are more of them than there are of us. Rav Huna even says that there are a thousand on each person's right side and ten thousand on his left, as the Pasuk in Tehilim (in Kapitel 91, which deals with the Mazikin) writes "a thousand will fall on your right-hand side and ten thousand on you left".

(c) They are responsible for the squash at the Yom-tov Derashah, tired knees (because they lean against them), the clothes of Talmidei-Chachamim becoming worn out and knocking our knees.
(It should be noted that the Mazikin - upon which the concept of ghosts is based, are uncommon today, due to the Tefilos of the Amora'im).

(a) If one did not lock the Mazikin inside a sealed metal pipe, they would walk off with one's belongings.

(b) Rav Bibi, following the Gemara's instructions, saw them and came to harm, to the point that the Rabbanan had to Daven for him to become cured.

(a) "li'Shemo'a el ha'Rinah ve'El ha'Tefilah" teaches us that 'bi'Mekom Rinah, Sham Tehei Tefilah' - that a person's Tefilah is only accepted when he Davens in Shul (even when there is no Minyan).

(b) We also learn from "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Keil" that Hashem is to be found in Shul, and that the Shechinah is present whenever a Minyan Davens together.

1. "be'Kerev Elokim Yishpot" teaches us that the Shechinah is present when three Dayanim judge.
2. From "Az Nidberu" etc., we derive that, whenever two people sit together and learn, the Shechinah is present, too.
3. And from "u'le'Choshvei Shemo" Chazal derive (out of the former context) that, if a Jew wants to perform a Mitzvah but is prevented from doing so, it is considered as if he had performed it.
4. "be'Chol Makom Asher Azkir es Shemi" etc. teaches us that, even if only one person is sitting and studying Torah on his own, the Shechinah is still there.
(b) When two people sit and study Torah together, their words are written in Hashem's book of Chronicles.

(c) We may have thought that judging is not considered, and that the Shechinah is therefore not present, that is why we need the Pasuk of "Elokim Nitzav" etc.

(d) When three people learn together or judge (or four, or five etc.) the Shechinah only comes only *after* they have begun to study, whereas when ten men gather together to Daven, the Shechinah arrives first.

(a) "Nishba Hashem bi'Yemino" refers to Torah, and "u'vi'Zero'a Uzo" to Tefilin, and we learn from here that Hashem lays Tefilin.

(b) The Torah writes "ve'Ra'u Kol Amei ha'Aretz ki Sheim Hashem Nikra Alecha, ve'Yar'u Mimeka", Rebbi Eliezer ascribes to Tefilin. So we see that our wearing Tefilin frightens our enemies.

(a)&(b) The four (actually there are six) Pesukim are those that are contained in Hashem's Tefilin: "Ki Mi Goy Gadol" and "u'Mi Goy Gadol" in the first Parshah, "Ashrecha Yisrael" (the odd man out) and "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael" in the second, "O ha'Nisah Elokim" in the third, and "u'le'Sitcha Elyon" in the fourth.

(c) On Hashem's Tefilin 'shel Yad', is written exactly the same as on His 'shel Rosh'.

(d) "es Hashem He'emarta Hayom, va'Hashem He'emircha Hayom" means that you carved out Hashem (singled Him out for praise) today, and He carved you out today.
From here, the Gemara proves that Hashem sings the praises of Yisrael.




(a) Hashem inquires about the man who is normally in Shul, but who fails to turn up one day (for reasons not outside of his control). - Interestingly, Hashem does not inquire about the man who does not appear regularly in Shul. In *him*, He seems to take no interest.

(b) If he went on a D'var Mitzvah, then he is vindicated, since someone who is busy with one Mitzvah, is exempt from performing another.
But if he left early on business, then Hashem is angry with him, because he should have had more faith in the Name of Hashem, and gone to Shul first. (Would Hashem have really allowed him to lose on account of his going to Shul?)

(c) If someone has a fixed place for Davening (both a fixed Shul and a fixed place in Shul), one praises his humility and his piety, and refers to him as a disciple of Avraham Avinu.

(d) They confer upon him that title because Avraham Avinu too, used to Daven in the same place that he Davened previously, should he return to that place.

(a) When leaving Shul, one should not take big steps, because it conveys the impression that he cannot get out of Shul fast enough.

(b) Going to Shul is quite the opposite - one should run to Shul, in order to demonstrate that one cannot get to Shul fast enough.

(c) Rebbi Zeira, at one time, used to avoid running to Shul on Shabbos because he thought that this constituted profaning Shabbos (on which one is normally forbidden to run or to take large steps). But when he heard Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's statement - that it is a Mitzvah to run to Shul, even on Shabbos, then he too, began to do so.

(a) The most important part of learning a Sugya is the reasoning, understanding it well - the Sevara.

(b) The most important part of visiting a Beis Aveil is silence.

(c) The most important part of fasting is giving Tzedakah (so that the poor should not go hungry after the fast.

(d) The most important part of a eulogy is getting the people to cry.

(e) The most important part of a wedding is saying nice things (about the Chasan and Kalah) to make the Chasan happy.

(a) Behind the Shul means behind the West wall, where the Aron ha'Kodesh was situated. It is called behind or the back of the Shul because the door, which would be considered the front of the Shul, was generally on the East wall.

(b) It is permitted to Daven behind the Shul, but provided that one turns one's face towards the Shul.

(c) It is forbidden to Daven behind a Shul because it looks as if he is worshipping a different G-d than everybody else.

(a) "Kerum" refers to Tefilah, which is something that stands 'be'Rumo shel Olam' - on top of the world, so to speak. And "Zulus" comes from the word ', meaning cheap or without respect.
Consequently, Kerum Zulus li'V'nei Adam refers to Tefilah, which although it stands on top of the world, yet people treat with disrespect.

(b) Someone who needs to come onto other people ("li'V'nei Adam") financially, becomes cheap in their eyes ("Zulus"), to the point that his face turns to all colors of the rainbow ("Kerum" - whose plumage changes color).

(c) "Hirkavta Enosh le'Rosheinu" (You placed a man over us - because of our debts 'Rashya' is a creditor), "Ba'nu ba'Eish u'va'Mayim' (it is as humiliating as suffering fire and water at one and the same time.)

(a) We learn the importance of Davening Minchah (which they explain is due to its inconvenient time - in the middle of one's work-day) from Eliyahu, by whom the Pasuk writes (in Melachim) that it was at Minchah-time that Hashem answered his prayers to send down a heavenly fire to consume his saturated sacrifice.

(b) Eliyahu repeated the word "Aneini", to entreat Hashem that, not only should He answer his prayers to send the fire, but also that the people should acknowledge the miracle, and not attribute the happenings to witchcraft.

(a) Someone who attends a wedding, and does not do something to make the Chasan happy, has transgressed the five 'Kolos' written in the Pasuk (in Yirmiyah) "Kol Sason, ve'Kol Simchah, Kol Chasan, ve'Kol Kalah, Kol Omrim, Hodu es Hashem Tzevakos".

(b) If on the other hand, he does make the Chasan happy, he will merit Torah, which was given at Sinai with five Kolos: "va'Yehi ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, bi'Heyos ha'Boker, ve'Yehi Kolos (2) u'Verakim ... ve'Kol Shofar (1) ... va'Yehi Kol ha'Shofar (1) ... ve'ha'Elokim Ya'anenu ve'Kol (1).

(c) "ve'Chol ha'Am Ro'im es ha'Kolos" refers to the voices that were heard (or seen) *before* Matan Torah, not during, like the others are.

(d) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak adds that it is as if he had built one of the ruins of Yerushalayim.

(a) Rav Chelbo, quoting Rav Huna, learns from the Pasuk "Sof Davar" etc., that when someone who possesses the Fear of G-d speaks, then people listen to him.

(b) Others learn from "Ki Zeh kol ha'Adam" either that the person with the Fear of G-d is equal to the whole, or that the whole world was created with the sole purpose of serving him.

(c) The poor man has nothing that one can steal from him, except the 'good morning' - and that is what Yeshayah means when he writes that "you have stolen from the poor man in your house" (there is nothing in his house to steal).

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