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Berachos 63


QUESTION: The Gemara says that in the Beis ha'Mikdash, the person reciting the blessings would conclude the blessing with the words, "Baruch Hashem Elokei Yisrael Min ha'Olam v'Ad ha'Olam...." The people would respond, "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso..." after the blessing. The Gemara explains that the reason was because "we do not respond 'Amen' in the Beis ha'Mikdash." Why did they recite a different Chasimah to blessings, and give a different response to blessings, in the Beis ha'Mikdash?

ANSWER: The MAHARSHA in Sotah (40b) explains that only in this world do we pronounce the name of Hashem with the name of "Adnus." In Olam ha'Ba, Hashem's name will be pronounced the way it is written (Pesachim 50a). In the Beis ha'Mikdash, they said "Ad ha'Olam" (lit. "until the world") to show that only until the end of this world will we use the name "Adnus" to refer to Hashem. After this world, the Name will be revealed it its entirety. That is why in the Beis ha'Mikdash "Baruch Shem Kevod... *le'Olam va'Ed*" ("*forever*") is the refrain. Since in the blessings uttered in the Beis ha'Mikdash we allude to the Tetragrammaton as it is *spelled*, we proclaim that it is *this name that will be used "for eternity," i.e. in Olam ha'Ba.

The Maharsha continues that we say "Amen" after blessings because the word "Amen" alludes to both names of Hashem -- the way that it is written (which has a Gematria value of 26), and the way that it is pronounced (which has a Gematria of 65) -- which have a combined value of 91 (the same value as "Amen"). We do not say "Amen" in the Beis ha'Mikdash because we want to emphasize the eternity of the ineffable Name and we do not want to allude to the finite quality of this world (which is represented by the Holy Name as it is pronounced). We therefore say instead, "Baruch Shem Kevod... le'Olam va'Ed" (which alludes only to the Holy Name as it is spelled). (MAHARSHA, Sotah 40b, DH Minayin sh'Ein)

RAV YITZCHAK HUTNER zt'l (Pachas Yitzchak, Yom Kippur) adds that it is for the same reason that we say "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso..." after the verse "Shema Yisrael...." Normally, we only have in mind the concept of Hashem's Adnus, His sovereignty, when we mention the name of Hashem in a blessing our in our prayers (see OC 5). When we say Shema, though, we must also have in mind the ineffable Name, as it is written (Vilna Gaon, ibid.). Since we allude to the spelling of that name, we say immediately afterwards, "Baruch Shem Kevod... le'Olam va'Ed," -- that is, "this is the name that will last forever!"

OPINIONS: The Gemara says that a person should teach his child a clean and simple occupation, such as "Machta d'Talmiyusa." What is "Machta d'Talmiyusa?"
(a) RASHI explains that "Machta d'Tamiyusa" refers to embroidery, where lines of stitches are embroidered on top of a material.

(b) The ARUCH explains that it means that a person should be a tailor who mends clothes, and not one who makes clothes. That way, he will not have to take the measurements of women for making clothes.

(c) The ROSH and RA'AVAD explain that it is a type of knitting.

(d) TOSFOS RID says that it does not involve clothes at all. "Machta d'Talmiyusa" is one who makes *needles*. (Cited in EINAYIM LA'MISHPAT)


QUESTION: The Gemara says that if there are sages in Israel, then only they can add an extra month (Adar Sheni) to the year, and not the sages outside of Israel. The source for this is the verse, "Ki mi'Tzion Tetzei Torah..." (Yeshaya 2:3). Why, then, does the Gemara in Sanhedrin (11b) cite a different verse (Devarim 12:5), as cited by Rashi here (63a)? (See Tosfos, Sanhedrin 11b, end of DH Ein.)


(a) TOSFOS (Shavuos 31a, DH v'Ro'eh) says that it is the style of the Gemara to cite different verses as sources for the same Halachah in different places

(b) The MAHARSHA here answers that the verse in Devarim is the source for not making a leap year outside of Israel when the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing, as is implied from the context of the verse there. The verse cited in our Gemara, "Ki mi'Tzion," refers to when the Beis ha'Mikdash is not standing.

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