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Berachos 49


OPINIONS: The Gemara says that we mention "Malchus" in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv (the fourth blessing of Birkas ha'Mazon) more than once in order to make up for the "Malchus" which should have been said in the previous blessing, Boneh Yerushalayim. If Boneh Yerushalayim is a blessing that is "Samuch l'Chaverta," why does it need "Malchus?" The Gemara answers that it needs "Malchus" because it is not respectful to mention the kingship of human beings (that is, the Malchus of David ha'Melech) without mentioning the Kingship of Hashem.

The TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH ask why, then, did the Sages not simply institute a mentioning of Hashem's Malchus in Boneh Yerushalayim itself, instead of instituting a make-up mention for it in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv? They answer that even though mention must be made of Hashem's kingship if mention is being made of man's kingship, nevertheless it is not respectful to mention Hashem's kingship in the same breath as man's kingship, because it looks as if we are equating them. (So, too, writes the ROSH 7:22). The Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah mention that there were old texts in which mention *was* made of Hashem's kingship in Boneh Yerushalayim, but those texts were mistaken, as is evident from our Gemara that requires mention of Hashem's kingship to be placed in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv.

On Rosh Chodesh or Yom Tov, when we recite "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas ha'Mazon in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim, should we say "Melech" ["Ki Kel *Melech* Chanun v'Rachum Atah" -- "for You are a gracious and merciful *King*?"] in Ya'aleh v'Yavo or not?

(a) The AVUDRAHAM indeed writes that the word "Melech" is to be omitted from "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas ha'Mazon for this reason. The recently printed "MACHZOR HA'MEPHORASH" (Jerusalem, 1995) adds in the name of Rav Yosef Chaim Zonnenfeld, zt'l, that even on Rosh ha'Shanah, "Melech" is not recited in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" of Birkas ha'Mazon.

(b) The REMA (OC 188:3) writes that although the Avudraham's reasoning behind omitting "Melech" is correct, we do not see anyone who omits it in practice. The MAGEN AVRAHAM (OC 188:2) justifies the common practice by suggesting that since "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" is a completely separate prayer from Boneh Yerushalayim (even though it was instituted to be recited within that blessing), saying "Melech" in it is not considered to be mentioning Hashem's kingship next to man's kingship, and therefore it is permitted. Others add that it would not be proper to recite "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" differently in Birkas ha'Mazon from the way one recites it in Shemoneh Esreh, and therefore it is permitted to mention Melech in Ya'aleh v'Yavo.

(c) The widely used, annual calendar in Israel records that the practice of Minhag Yerushalayim is *not* to say "Melech" in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas ha'Mazon, *except* on Rosh ha'Shanah (cited in the name of the MATEH EFRAIM).

HALACHAH: The custom nowadays is to say "Melech" in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas ha'Mazon, like the Rema (although many Sidurim put the word "Melech" in parentheses). However, if one has a family custom not to say it, then one should follow his family custom.


2) QUESTION: On Shabbos, we mention "Retzeh" in Birkas ha'Mazon in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim. On Rosh Chodesh, we add "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim.

RABEINU YONAH (Daf 29a; see Insights 29:1) puts forth the rule that in the "abridged" version of a Berachah we only mention those things that were actual blessings in the original. If so, why do we make mention of Shabbos ("Retzeh") and Rosh Chodesh ("Ya'aleh v'Yavo") in Al ha'Michyah when those prayers are not actual blessings in Birkas ha'Mazon?

RAV CHAIM SOLOVECHIK explains that those prayers sometimes *are* blessings in the Birkas ha'Mazon, as our Gemara makes clear. If a person forgets to say "Retzeh" and remembers after the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim but before beginning the next blessing, he recites a short blessing that makes mention of Shabbos in lieu of "Retzeh." For that reason we include an abridged mention of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh in Al ha'Michyah because they are indeed abridged blessings.

Rav Chaim goes further and explains that this is the reason why we mention Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh *after* the words "u'Vneh Yerushalayim" in Al ha'Michyah, while in Birkas ha'Mazon we say them *before* the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim. These short mentions are *not* abridged versions of "Retzeh" and "Ya'aleh v'Yavo," but rather abridged versions of the *blessings* of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. Since those blessings are said only *after* Boneh Yerushalayim, their abridged versions are said only *after* u'Vneh Yerushalayim as well!

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