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Berachos 26


QUESTION: The Shacharis prayer is called Shacharis because it is the morning ("Shachar") prayer, and it corresponds to the morning Tamid offering. The nighttime prayer, Arvis (or Ma'ariv) is called such because it is said at night (Erev). Why, though, is the afternoon prayer called Minchah?


(a) TOSFOS (Pesachim 107a, DH Samuch) explains that a Minchah (flour) offering was brought together with the afternoon Tamid, and therefore the prayer that corresponds to the afternoon Tamid is called Minchah (as opposed to Arvis, which corresponds only to the offering of the Tamid's limbs and not to the offering of a Minchah). Even though a Minchah offering was also brought with the *morning* Tamid, for the morning prayer there is a more general name that can be used ("Shacharis"). The word that is used to refer to the afternoon ("Erev"), though, is already being used to refer to the nighttime prayer, Arvis.

(b) TOSFOS (ibid.) answers further that the Gemara (Berachos 6b) says that Minchah is a special prayer, because that was the time of day that G-d answered Eliyahu and the idolaters were proven wrong. Perhaps Eliyahu was bringing a Minchah offering at the time, and Hashem answered his prayers because it was a propitious time of Divine favor. We therefore call the afternoon prayer, "The prayer of the Minchah (of Eliyahu)," to remind ourselves that it is prayed during a time of Divine favor.

The VILNA GA'ON in Shenos Eliyahu adds that we find that a person is allowed to recite Minchah until the very end of the day. If the afternoon prayer was instituted to correspond to the afternoon Korban Tamid as the Gemara (26b) states, that Korban's slaughtering was never done later than 8 1/2 hours into the day, so why should we be able to Daven after the time of the slaughtering of the Tamid?

Rather, answers to Gaon, the Minchah prayer was instituted to correspond not to the offering of the Tamid, but to the Minchah offering that was brought with the Korban Tamid (during which Eliyahu's prayer's were answered), which could be brought until the very end of the day (sunset according to the Rabanan, Plag ha'Minchah according to Rebbi Yehudah). He explains that the reason the time for the afternoon prayer was determined by the Minchah offering (and the morning prayer was not) is because the Korban along with all of its associated offerings make up one single group called the Korban Tamid. In the morning, the time of prayer is determined by the *first* part of the Korban, which is the sacrificing of the Korban, while in the afternoon, one may Daven until the *last* part of the Korban, which is the Minchah offering.

(d) RAMBAM (Perush ha'Mishnayos) says that the late afternoon is called "Minchah" in Hebrew, and therefore the afternoon prayer is called as such. The AVUDRAHAM adds that the Torah refers to the late afternoon as "Ruach ha'Yom" (Bereishis 3:8), which the Targum translates as "*li'Menach* Yoma", which means the time when the sun can be seen to be setting. Hence, the prayer said at that time is called Minchah.


QUESTION: If a person missed Shacharis, he should Daven Minchah twice. So, too, if a person missed Minchah or Ma'ariv, he should Daven the following prayer twice. What happens if, on Rosh Chodesh, a person forgot Ya'aleh v'Yavo during Minchah, and did not remember until nighttime, which is no longer Rosh Chodesh? Should he say Ma'ariv that night twice even though it is not Rosh Chodesh, in order to make up for the lost Shemoneh Esreh? Or should he not recite an extra Shemoneh Esreh, because he is not going to gain anything from it (that is, he will not gain the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, because he already said them at Minchah; he will not gain Ya'alehv'Yavo, because he does not recite it the night after Rosh Chodesh)?

There are two opinions in the Rishonim (cited in TOSFOS DH Ta'ah):

(a) RABEINU YEHUDAH HA'CHASID says that one should not recite another Shemoneh Esreh at night to make up for missing Ya'aleh v'Yavo in Minchah of the previous day, because one gains nothing by doing so.

(b) The RIF argues that a person should still Daven a second Ma'ariv, even though he does not recite Ya'aleh v'Yavo in it.

It appears that the two opinions argue as to why a person has to Daven again when he misses Ya'aleh v'Yavo on Rosh Chodesh (for example, if he missed Ya'aleh v'Yavo in the Shacharis Shemoneh Esreh and remembered only after he had finished). Is it because his Shemoneh Esreh is lacking *Yaleh v'Yavo*, and he must make that up? Or is it because it is considered as though his *entire Shemoneh Esreh* is lacking, since it was not prayed properly, and he must make up the entire Shemoneh Esreh?

Rabeinu Yehudah ha'Chasid maintains that his Shemoneh Esreh is a valid Tefilah, but it was just lacking Ya'aleh v'Yavo, and therefore he must recite a second Shemoneh Esreh to make up for missing Ya'aleh v'Yavo. Consequently, when reciting another Shemoneh Esreh will not give him the Ya'aleh v'Yavo which he missed (such as our case of Davening Ma'ariv twice), Rabeinu Yehudah ha'Chasid sees no reason to repeat the Shemoneh Esreh. The Rif, on the other hand, maintains that his entire Shemoneh Esreh is *not* a valid Tefilah, and therefore he must repeat it, even when he will not gain Ya'aleh v'Yavo by repeating it.

HALACHAH: The ROSH (4:2) considers this question a Halachic uncertainty. Therefore, he concludes that one should Daven a second Shemoneh Esreh of Ma'ariv, but have in mind that it is a Tefilas Nedavah. (Since he is saying a Tefilas Nedavah because he is in doubt as to whether he actually is obligated to Daven now, he does not have to add a new request in his Tefilah like one is normally required to do when reciting a Tefilas Nedavah). The Mishnah Berurah adds that if the night after Rosh Chodesh is a Shabbos or Yom Tov, then he should *not* repeat Shemoneh Esreh, since a Tefilas Nedavah is not said on those days, see Insights to Berachos 21:2.
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