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Berachos 59

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 59b [line 10]:
"Baruch Oseh Bereishis"
(a) This is the Girsa of the Rambam and the Rif, and the way the Berachah
appears in our Mishnah. According to these Rishonim, the Berachah should be
appear this way, and not "Ma'aseh" Bereishis, throughout the entire Sugya.
(b) However, the Girsa of the Rosh (#13), Tur (#227) and the Shulchan Aruch
(#228) is "Oseh *Ma'aseh* Bereishis". Accordingly, the Girsa in the Mishnah
and the entire Sugya should be "Oseh *Ma'aseh* Bereishis".

1) [line 1] K'TARFA D'TARIF - like a flattened piece of metal
2) [line 6] EIN KATEIGOR NA'ASEH SANEIGOR - a prosecutor cannot become a defense attorney

3) [line 10] GUHA - (a) an earthquake (RASHI); (b) a roll of thunder or thunderclap (RASHBA, citing the ARUCH)

4) [line 11] UVA TAMAYA - a person who does divination with bones
5) [line 11] GANACH GUHA - there was an earthquake
6) [line 12] RAMA LEI KALA - (the diviner) called to him (Rav Katina) loudly
7) [line 15] KADIV - a liar
8) [line 17] SOFEIK KAPAV - claps his hands
9) [line 19] "HEIDAD K'DORCHIM YA'ANEH" - "He will give a shout, as they that tread grapes" (Yirmeyahu 25:30)

10) [line 22] ANANEI BA'GALGELA - clouds that rub together in the heavenly sphere
11) [line 25] BARKA TEKIFA - powerful lightning
12) [line 25] GEZIZEI D'VARZA - pieces of hail
13) [line 25] CHALCHULEI MECHALCHELEI - are hollow
14) [line 26] ZIKA - wind
15) [line 26] PUM DANEI - the tops of jars
16) [line 27] U'MENAHAMEI ANANEI - the clouds make noise
17) [line 28] ZA'AFA - a stormy wind; hurricane; tornado
18) [line 32] BARKA - lightning
19) [line 32] BARKA YERUKTA - yellow lightning
20) [line 37] KAD MAFTACH BAVEI - when you open your door
21) [line 37] BAR CHAMARA - donkey-driver
22) [line 37] MOCH SAKICH V'GANEI - fold your grain-sacks under you and sleep on them (i.e. there is no need to transport grain from place to place; there will be abundant produce everywhere)

23) [line 38] D'KATAR B'EIVA - when it (the sky) is covered with one thick cloud
24) [line 38] D'KATAR B'ANANEI - when it (the sky) is covered with thin clouds
25) [line 39] LIFSHOT AKMUMIS SHEBA'LEV - to straighten the crookedness of the heart
26) [line 50] RAKI'A B'TAHARASAH - a pristine, clear sky
27) [line 51] ISTENA - the north wind
28) [last line] "KADRUS" - "blackness"


29) [line 1] CHAMAH BI'TKUFASAH - (a) when the sun comes back to the same point (in relation to the stars, planets and constellations) where it was placed in the Rakiya, on the night before Yom Revi'i of the week of creation. This happens once every 28 years. With regard to this Berachah, we follow the opinion that the world was created on the first of Nisan, and the Berachah is recited on the fourth of Nisan at sunrise. (RASHI);
(b) when the sun and stars are not visible for at least three consecutive days during the winter, this Berachah is recited upon their reemergence (ARUCH, citing the Gemara Yerushalmi (Berachos 9:3)

30) [line 1] LEVANAH BI'GVURASAH - (a) when the moon can be seen at the beginning of a month in Mazal Taleh (the constellation Aries) and it is crossing the ecliptic (RAMBAM);
(b) The Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (#13) is LEVANAH *B'TAHARASAH*, which apparently means that there is a full moon and the night sky is very bright. It seems, according to the Rif and Rosh, that Levanah b'Taharasah, Kochavim b'Mishmerosam and Mazalos b'Itam are all descriptions of one event and a Berachah is only recited when *all* of these conditions are met. (M. KORNFELD)

31) [line 2] KOCHAVIM BI'MSILOSAM - (a) when one of the planets crosses the ecliptic at the point where Mazal Taleh begins (RAMBAM);
(b) The Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (ibid.) is KOCHAVIM *B'MISHMEROSAM*, apparently when the sky is bright and a vast number of stars can be seen (M. KORNFELD)

32) [line 2] MAZALOS KESIDRAN - (a) when Mazal Taleh begins to rise on the eastern horizon (RAMBAM);
(b) the Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (ibid.) is MAZALOS *B'ITAM*, probably meaning that the sky is lucid and bright, and it is possible to see the constellations of that night very clearly.

33) [line 4] MACHZOR - cycle
34) [line 5] SHABTAI - Saturn
35) [line 5] B'URSA DI'TELAS NAGHEI ARBA - the night after the third day, which is the evening of the fourth day, i.e. Tuesday night

36) [line 9] GISHRA D'VAVEL - the ferry that crossed the Euphrates at a certain place in Bavel, which is down river from Ihi Dekira. It seems that this is called Gishra d'Vei Peras in Kidushin 71b.

37) [line 13] SHAVISTENA - a place on the Tigris River
38) [line 14] CHADIN V'KALIN - sharp and light

*39*) [line 15] SHE'MEIMAV PARIN V'RAVIN - its waters increase and multiply; that is, although the waters of all other rivers also increase and multiply, nevertheless the name Peras is more appropriate to the Euphrates because (a) it is outstanding among rivers and its waters increase even more than those of other rivers. (b) Alternatively, it is called Peras since it *causes* the waters of all the other rivers in the world to increase (TOSFOS Bechoros 55b DH Mesaye'a)

40) [line 17] GICHORI - (O.F. ros) they have a reddish complexion
41) [line 18] NAIDEI EINAIHU - their eyes move erratically
42) [line 22] MISHE'YETZE CHASAN LIKRAS KALAH - when so much rain falls that a drop that falls into a puddle causes a drop in the puddle to splash upward

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