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Berachos 58

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 58a [line 31]:
Chalif Telisa'i, Ki Ka Shaskah
(According to the Parisian manuscript, there were *three* times when a loud
noise was heard, and not just the two that appear in our texts. This
parallels the verses in Melachim 1:19:11-12 cited in our Sugya)

[2] Gemara 58a [line 36]:
Ika d'Amrei *Chavarohi Kachalinhu* l'Einei
The Girsa of the Aruch (Erech Batat) is:
*Amar Milsa v'Nafak Butisa d'Nura v'Nachbinhu* l'Einei
This is also the Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim #400 and Beis Nasan

[3] Gemara 58a [line 45]:
Nisa l'Shakarei *Hachi*
The word "Hachi" is unnecessary and does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim #6

[4] Hagahos ha'Gra 58a #2:
*l'Vasar v'Dam*
This is also the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #70 and in all the early
printings of the Gemara

[5] Gemara 58b [line 50]:
me'Hai Gisa d'Chisla v'Chazi Lei *Chavrei*
The word "Chavrei" is not found in Beis Nasan and in the Parisian manuscript

1) [line 4] "V'SAMTIHA L'MORASH KIPOD V'AGMEI MAYIM" - "I will also make it a possession for wild birds and [a desolate land covered with] pools of water"(Yeshayah 14:23). The prophet describes HaSh-m's promise to destroy Bavel.

2) [line 6] "IY HA'SADEH" - "hills in the fields" (Michah 1:6). The prophet describes the destruction of Shomron, comparing the heaps of rubble from the houses that will be demolished to an uneven field full of hillocks

*3*) [line 7] HA'RO'EH UCHLUSEI YISRAEL - This Berachah is mentioned here since we are dealing with Berachos that apply in unusual situations and are said only from time to time

4) [line 8] CHACHAM HA'RAZIM - the wise One who knows all secrets
5a) [line 15] GAZAZ - sheared [wool]
b) [line 15] LIBEN - washed it
c) [line 15] NAFATZ - beat it (to separate individual strands)
d) [line 15] TAVA - spun
e) [line 15] ARAG - wove
6) [line 18] GELUSKA'OS - delicate breads made from fine white flour

7) [line 20] "ZECHOR KI SASGI FA'ALO, ASHER SHORERU ANASHIM" - "Remember that you magnify his work, which men behold" (Iyov 36:24) Elihu exhorts Iyov to remember all the great kindnesses of HaSh-m, and to praise Him for them. This corresponds to the conscientious guest who praises the host, saying that the host did everything for him. (MAHARSHA)

8) [line 28] CHATZAVEI L'NAHARA; KAGANEI LAYA? - People who can see (lit. whole people) can go down to the river; where are the blind (lit. broken people) going? i.e. Since you are blind, why are you going to see the king?

9) [line 29] GUNDA - troop
10) [line 29] AVSHA - made noise
11) [line 36] KACHLINHU L'EINEI - gouged out his eyes (RASHI). See Girsa section #2.

12) [line 38] ACHAL BEI KURTZEI - he told Lashon ha'Ra about Rav Shila to the Roman Emperor. See Rashi to Vayikra 19:16 for an explanation of this expression

13) [line 38] HARMENA D'MALKA - royal appointment
14) [line 39] PERISTEKA - messenger
15) [line 44] V'RACHAMEI DINA - and you are devoted to upholding law and order
16) [line 44] KULFA - a strap with an iron weight on the end
17) [line 50] "V'YEZ NITZCHAM AL BEGADAI" - "and their blood was sprinkled on my garments" (Yeshayah 63:3) HaSh-m describes the downfall and destruction of Rome in this chapter

18) [line 52] MILCHEMES SISRA
After the death of the Shofet Eihud Ben Geira, Benei Yisrael became lax in their observance of Torah and Mitzvos. In order to prompt them to do Teshuvah, HaSh-m caused King Yavin of Chatzor to attack and subjugate them. After twenty years of subjugation under the cruel general Sisra, Benei Yisrael finally repented and cried out to HaSh-m to save them. Since they were now worthy for redemption, HaSh-m told Devorah the prophetess that if Benei Yisrael wage war against Sisra, they will be successful. She and Barak Ben Avino'am led Benei Yisrael to victory, with the help of HaSh-m, who caused a flash flood in Nachal Kishon that wiped out much of his army. The account of this battle and the glorious Song of Devorah which it inspired are recorded in Shoftim 4-5.

Magog is first mentioned among the sons of Yefes, son of No'ach, in Bereishis 10:2. The prophet Yechezkel (chapters 38-39) describes a cataclysmic war lead by Gog of the land of Magog, where many nations combine forces to wage war against the land of Yisrael. The prophecy assures Gog that HaSh-m Himself will ruin the war effort and will destroy all of his multitudes. It is traditionally assumed that this war will take place at the end of days, preceding the revelation of HaSh-m as master of His world.

20) [line 54] "HINENI ELECHA GOG, NESI ROS MESHECH V'SUVAL" - "Behold, I am against you, Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tuval" (Yechezkel 38:3)

21) [line 55] REIS GARGISA - well-digger


22) [line 2] MATZIV - establish; renew
23) [line 4] "YISACH" - destroy (lit. pluck up)
24) [line 7] NAGAD - he became weak (ARUCH)
25) [line 8] ISNACH - he sighed
26) [line 13] AFYASA - baked goods; alt. baked fish
27) [line 17] KEFEIN - hungry
28) [line 19] B'TALA - in a heap
29) [line 21] "L'SHAMAH" - "for desolation"
30) [line 34] BA'HADEI D'CHAZINACH - upon seeing you
31) [line 38] BAHAKANIM - (O.F. lentillos) a person full of white spots
32) [line 39] GICHOR - (O.F. ros) a person with a very red complexion
33) [line 39] LAVKAN - an albino
34) [line 40] KIPEI'ACH - (a) a person with such a large stomach that he looks much shorter than he really is; (b) a tall, hunchbacked person

35) [line 40] NANAS - (a) a midget; (b) a dwarf
36) [line 40] HIDRANIKOS - (a) a person with warts; (b) a person whose mouth is crooked

37) [line 41] KITEI'A - a person whose hands have been cut off
38) [line 41] PESUYEI HA'ROSH - people whose hair is matted together
39) [line 41] MUKAH SHECHIN - (a) a person who is stricken with boils; (b) a person with Tzara'as

40) [line 46] KOCHVA D'SHAVIT - (a) a shooting star (RASHI, ARUCH);
(b) a comet (RAMBAM)

41) [line 47] KESILA - Orion
42) [line 48] ZIVEI - its radiance
43) [line 48] MISCHAZEI - it appears

44) [line 49] VILON - There are seven firmaments (Raki'a). The lowest is called Vilon and the one above is called Raki'a. According to the Rashi in Chagigah 12b, Vilon hides the light of the sun at night.

45) [line 51] MIV'IS - and the person watching it is scared (because he thought that the event took place *in* Kesil, and not *behind* it)

46a) [line 51] "ASH" -

(a) either Aldeberan, which is a red star in the head of Taurus (the eye of the bull), or the Pleiades (the Seven Sisters) which is a large cluster of stars not far from Aldeberan (GEMARA, RASHI);
(b) the Big Dipper (also known by some as the Great Bear (IBN EZRA to Amos Chapter 5, Iyov Chapters 9 and 38 - the Ibn Ezra also mentions that according to some it is the Pleiades)
b) [line 51] "KIMAH" -
(a) a cluster of more than 100 stars in Aries (RASHI);
(b) Spica, a large star in the constellation of Akrav (Scorpio) (MAHARSHA);
(c) the Pleiades (IBN EZRA)
c) [line 51] "KESIL" -
(a) In modern Hebrew, Orion (the Hunter). (Perhaps this is also the intent of our Gemara, although there is no clear evidence either way);
(b) Spica (Ibn Ezra)
47) [line 53] UKTZA D'AKRABA - the tail/stinger of Akrav (acc. to Rashi, a part of the constellation Aries, the lamb. According to the Maharsha, the constellation Scorpio)

48) [line 53] NEHAR DINUR - the River of Fire
49) [line 54] TERIKA - sting

50) [line 54] "HA'SEKASHER MA'ADANOS KIMAH, O MOSHECHOS KESIL TEFATE'ACH" - "Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades, or loosen the cords of Orion? (Iyov 38:31) See above, #46

51a) [line 55] MECHANFEI - they are gathered together
b) [line 56] MEVADRAN - they are scattered
52) [line 56] ZANAV TALEH - the tail of Aries

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