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Berachos 52

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 52a DH Lo Salka Da'atach:
The words "Al ha'Mazon *sheba'Techilah*"
should be "Al ha'Mazon *Techilah*"

[2] Rashi 52a DH Hachi Garsinan, Ela Trei Tana'ei:
(a) The Maharsha erased the words "Tana d'Rebbi Chiya" (since Beis Shamai
of the Mishnah does not argue with Rebbi Chiya, rather, they agree, as
Rashi mentions on Daf 53b DH Ba Lahem. See the Maharsha on our Mishnah
(Daf 51b), also.) He also emended the word "Amar" to read "Amru", and
"d'Masnisin" to read "d'Masnisa", which adds to the clarity of Rashi.
(b) It is also possible that Rashi feels that the Tana of the end of the
Mishnah argues with the Tana of the beginning of the Mishnah. If so, the
words of Rashi need no emendation, except that they should read "v'Tana
d'Masnisin d'Le'eil *v'Rebbi* (and not *d'Rebbi*) Yehudah..." (M. Kornfeld)

[3] Gemara 52b [line 38]:
u'Veis Hillel Omrim, *Im Shamash* Talmid Chacham *Hu*
The Girsa in the Rif and the Rosh (and Beis Nasan) is
"*b'Shamash* Talmid Chacham Askinan".
(According to our Girsa, we must say that even according to Beis Hillel one
may sometimes uses a Shamash who is an Am ha'Aretz, when he does not find a
Shamash who is a Talmid Chacham. It is preferable only l'Chatchilah to use
a Talmid Chacham - Hagahos Dikdukei Sofrim)

1) [line 1] EIN MASHGICHIN B'VAS KOL One of the lower forms of prophecy is called Bas Kol (lit. echo), where certain individuals of a high spiritual status hear a heavenly voice. The Gemara in numerous places cites instances when a Bas Kol was heard, relaying information from the heavens to the earth. Rebbi Yehoshua (Gemara Bava Metzi'a 59b) is of the opinion that we do not accept the ruling of a Bas Kol when it contradicts the majority opinion of the Sages. The Tana of our Beraisa, according to the second answer of the Gemara, rules more stringently; we do not accept the testimony of a Bas Kol even if it follows the majority opinion. (Beis Hillel were the majority at the time, and yet the Tana saw it necessary to rule explicitly that the Halachah follows the rulings of Beis Hillel - TOSFOS DH v'Rebbi)

2) [line 6] MESHALSHELAN - links or combines them
3a) [line 23] IYULEI YOMA - the beginning (lit. bringing in) of the day
b) [line 23] APUKEI YOMA - the end (lit. letting out) of the day
4) [line 32] TA'AMO, PAGMO - if he drinks from it (lit. tastes it), he disqualifies it

5) [line 42] SHENI ... SHELISHI
All objects belong to one of three categories:

(a) sources of Tum'ah
(b) objects that can become Tamei
(c) objects that cannot become Tamei
All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."

When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon; even if touched by a Sheni.)

Chulin cannot be made Tamei mid'Oraisa by a Sheni L'Tum'ah. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."


6) [line 41] V'YACHZERU V'YTAM'U ES HA'KOS - That is, he will make the back of the cup Tamei (see Rashi)

If liquids which are a Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah come in contact with utensils, they make them Tamei mid'Rabanan. In order to remember that the Tum'ah is only mid'Rabanan, the Chachamim stipulated that if the liquids only touched the outside of a wooden or metal utensil, only the outside becomes Tamei, and not the inside. There is no Tum'ah mid'Oraisa with such a property. (If a liquid, or anything Tamei for that matter, touches the outside of an earthenware vessel, the vessel does not become Tamei at all -- Rashi Chagigah 22b.)


8) [line 1] OGNO - its rim
9) [line 1] OZNO - its handle
10) [line 4] NITZOTZOS - drops of liquid
11) [line 34] IKAR MID'ORAISA - the *basis* of this Halachah is a law which is d'Oraisa

12) [line 38] PEIRURIN - crumbs
13) [line 54] D'LO SHAVAS - it did not rest (i.e. forbidden work was done with it on Shabbos)

14) [line 55] MESIBAS - banquet

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