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Berachos 47

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 47a [line 42]:
The words "v'Havah Ani v'Chazi Lei"
should be "v'Havah Ani v'Chazi Lei, *Hashta Nami Chazi Lei*"
as is found in Shabbos, Eiruvin and Sukah, and is the Girsa in Dikdukei
Sofrim #3 and Beis Nasan. Alternatively, they should be "v'Havah Ani
*Chazi* Lei" as is found in the Paris manuscript of the Talmud.

[2] Rashi 47a DH Achsanya:
The words "b'Shuvam mi'Milchamto v'Harei Hem k'Aniyim"
are hard to understand, since the Rabanan permitted Demai to be given to
non-Jewish soldiers in order to make it less difficult, financially, for
the Jewish hosts. It makes no difference whether or not the soldiers were
considered like the poor, since the soldiers are presumably non-Jews. It
seems that some words are missing from Rashi, and Rashi should read:
"b'Shuvam mi'Milchamto *Iy Nami, Achsanya, Orchim* v'Harei Hem k'Aniyim"
This reading parallels the explanation of Tosfos DH u'Ma'achilin and
Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah on the Mishnah. (M. Kornfeld)

1) [line 20] ASIK LEI LI'VREI - married off his son


a) [line 27] CHATUFAH - (a) pronounced with a Chataf under the Alef instead of a Kamatz, which sounds like " 'men" (RASHI);
(b) interjected before the Berachah was completed (ARUCH)

b) [line 28] KETUFAH - (a) pronounced without the final Nun, which sounds like Ame' (RASHI);
(b) split into two parts: A - men (ARUCH) (RECORDING INCLUDED IN MAILING)

c) [line 28] YESOMAH - (a) when the person does not know to *which* Berachah he is answering Amen (RASHI);
(b) when the person did not *hear* the Berachah -- with the exception of Birkas ha'Torah during the Torah reading -- which apparently was the Berachah involved in the story of the synagogue of Alexandria (ARUCH, citing Rabeinu Nisim Ga'on);
(c) when the word Amen is said a long time after the Berachah is completed (Abudarham). The most stringent version of the measurement of this time period is Kedei Dibur (approx. 1.6 or 2.2 seconds) (Pri Megadim Orach Chayim, Eshel Avraham 124:14). The Mishnah Berurah (124:34), however, shows that saying Amen within Kedei Dibur of *most of the congregation saying Amen* is also acceptable. See Bi'ur Halachah (ibid.) DH Miyad.

3) [line 34] HAVAH KAMESARHEV V'ACHIL - was rushing to eat
4) [line 36] ARDILAYA - types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles
5) [line 36] GOZALAYA - young birds
6) [line 44] ACHSANYA - (a) a non-Jewish army (RASHI), see Girsa section #2; a Jewish guest (TOSFOS DH u'Ma'achilin, in their first explanation)

(a) By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only if he harvests it in a normal manner. This includes completing the stalk-to-grain process in the field, piling up the grain there and bringing it through the front door of his house (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing). He must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.

(b) After Terumah Gedolah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(c) If a Levi came to the field and claimed the Ma'aser Rishon from the stalks, before the grain was separated, the requirement to give Terumah Gedolah is canceled, as Reish Lakish proves from the wording of the verse (ibid.).


8) [line 4] CHOMESH
(a) The second tithe that is separated from a landowner's produce during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.

(b) Similarly, if a person wants to redeem an object that he consecrated as Hekdesh, he must add the *fifth* on to the value and give it to the Hekdesh treasury. Hekdesh, as well as Ma'aser Sheni, that was redeemed by anyone else is exempt from the fifth.

9) [line 8] KUSI CHAVER
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. Our Tana is of the opinion that their conversion was valid. (After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles).

(b) A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: a) never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; b) never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; c) to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; d) to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.

10) [line 24] V'LO SHIMESH TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM - but did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim as a disciple, to learn the methods of the Gemara

11a) [line 26] SIFRA - Toras Kohanim. One of the earliest commentaries on Vayikra, which was written by Rav (circa 220 C.E.) and which follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah.
b) [line 27] SIFRI - the commentary of Rav on Bamidbar and Devarim, which follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon
c) [line 27] HILCHESA - Mishnah

12) [line 32] D'MASHMA LEHU - he did attend upon them as a disciple
13) [line 34] TZURBA ME'RABANAN - a young Talmid Chacham
14) [line 35] ATZITZ SHE'EINO NAKUV - it was planted in a pot without a drainage hole [and received no sustenance from the ground underneath]

15) [line 38] ASIMON - (O.F. fladon) blank, metal disc from which a coin is stamped
16) [line 45] SENIF - assistant. He makes it permissible to say the Zimun with the name of HaSh-m, as in the case of ten adults.

If a person transgresses an Aveirah in order to perform a Mitzvah, the Mitzvah is invalid. An example is stealing a Lulav in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Lulav on the second day of Sukos. The case brought in our Gemara is not exactly a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah b'Aveirah. A freed slave counts towards a Minyan from the day after he is freed onward, without any remnant of the transgression. It stands to reason that his status on the day of being freed is likewise untainted. The Gemara is only making a casual association with this Halachah.

18a) [line 52] KI MECHANFEI - when they are gathered together
b) [line 53] KI MEVADREI - when they are spread out

19) [line 55] KATAN PORE'ACH - (a) a boy who has bodily signs of adulthood (two pubic hairs), but has not reached the age of thirteen and one day (RASHI);
(b) a boy within his thirteenth year who does not have fully-developed signs of adulthood (the two pubic hairs have not grown to the required size (TOSFOS, citing Rabeinu Chananel)

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