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Berachos 45

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 45b [line 20]:
The words "she'Ein Birkas *ha'Mazon* Beineihem"
should be "she'Ein Birkas *ha'Zimun* Beineihem"
This is the Girsa of Rashi and appears to be more correct, based on the
context of the Sugya (Dikdukei Sofrim, Rashba and Ritva also have the Girsa *Zimun*)

[2] Tosfos 45b DH Ha b'Voneh:
The words "b'Chol Berachah *u'Vrachah*"
should be "b'Chol *Siyum* Berachah*"
(As is evident from the words of Tosfos ha'Rosh)

1) [line 1] D'CHANKASEI UMTZA - that was choking on a piece of meat
2) [line 4] PUK CHAZI MAI AMA D'VAR - go out and see how the people on the outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash] act

3) [line 6] L'ZAMEN
When three or more Jewish males eat a meal together which contains bread, they are required to recite the Zimun, which is an invitation to those present to get ready to bless HaSh-m for the food He provided. The Zimun precedes Birkas ha'Mazon, and is in responsive form. When ten or more men eat together, the Zimun is slightly changed, adding a name of HaSh-m explicitly.
Birkas ha'Zimun (the correct Girsa in Rebbi Zeira's statement on 45b, see Girsa section #1) is the name of this introduction to Birkas ha'Mazon, according to most Rishonim. Rashi 46a DH deka'Savar, however, according to one Amora in the Gemara, explains that Birkas ha'Zimun refers to the introduction *plus* the first Berachah of Birkas ha'Mazon (Birkas ha'Zan).

4) [line 7] DEMAI
Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?"). Ma'aser Rishon, Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) and Ma'aser Sheni (because it belongs to the owner) are presumed to have been separated.

5) [line 7] MA'ASER RISHON

(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
6) [line 8] MA'ASER SHENI
(a) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(b) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
7) [line 8] SHAMASH - servant

8) [line 9] KUSI
The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. Our Tana is of the opinion that their conversion was valid. (After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles).

9) [line 27] YEMA'ECH HA'KOREI - the reader shall lower


10) [line 7] D'IKA DEI'OS - Although 100 women are quantitatively considered as two men, and do not have an obligation to do Zimun, qualitatively they have the importance (lit. they are separate minds) that allows them to do Zimun.

11) [line 9] PRITZUSA - lewdness
12) [line 24] MEKAMEI D'NACHIS L'VAVEL - before he went down to Bavel
13) [line 36] BUR - an ignoramus
14) [line 41] IHU V'CHAD - he (Rav Papa) and another person
15) [line 44] MUFLAG - distinguished
16) [line 48] EIN ZIMUN L'MAFRE'A - Zimun cannot be said after Birkas ha'Mazon

17a) [line 54] B'KALA - out loud
b) [last line] BI'LCHISHA - whispering

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