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Berachos 36

1) [line 22] A'KARA CHAYA - on a raw gourd/pumpkin
2) [line 22] KIMCHA D'SA'AREI - barley flour
3) [line 27] ZAMIS - (O.F. salmuire) a) brine (RASHI); b) soup (ARUCH); c) the foam that collects at the top of a pot of cooked food (RAV HAI GAON); d) salt water (TUR)

4) [line 29] V'KASHE L'KUKYANEI - it is injurious in that it brings on parasite worms
5) [line 30] KORA - the white heart or terminal bud of a palm tree
6) [line 33] SHINENA - well-learned person
7) [line 33] TZENON - radish
8) [line 35] PUGLA - a radish before it hardens, the soft tuber of the radish
9) [line 34] TZELAF - caper-berry bush
10) [line 35] NITZPAH - identical with Tzelaf
11) [line 35] TEMAROS - date-like leaves that are soft and edible
12) [line 35] EVYONOS - caper-berry
13) [line 36] KAFRISIN - the soft peel around the caper berry
14) [line 37] SHUSA - sproutings of the caper-berry bush, i.e. the leaves, Temaros, Evyonos and Kafrisin

15) [line 38] ORLAH
In the first three years after a fruit tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. If a person eats a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkos. Deriving benefit from the fruit juice is forbidden also, but is not punishable by Malkos, except in the case of wine and olive oil.

*16*) [line 47] MA'ASER ILAN - That is, in Chutz la'Aretz. The Rabanan instituted Ma'aser in certain places in Chutz la'Aretz which were near Eretz Yisrael, or were centers of Judaism (Rambam, Hil Terumos 1:1)

17) [last line] YORED V'LOKE'ACH - The Halachah of Safek Orlah in Chutz la'Aretz is more lenient than in Syria. The Torah-observant Jew is allowed to buy produce from a farmer who is suspected of selling Orlah fruits, as long as he doesn't actually see him picking from the trees that are less than three years old. In Syria, Safek Orlah fruits are only permitted if they are already picked (RASHI Kedushin 38b DH u'Bilvad)


18) [line 3] SHOMER
A Shomer refers to those parts of fruits which serve to protect them (e.g. peels and skin). They also have the Din of Orlah (see above #15). A Shomer combines with the food to make up the requisite k'Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah. (Uktzin 2:3)

19a) [line 9] PITMA SHEL RIMON - a hair-like flower which is surrounded by the crown-like protrusion at the top of a pomegranate (RASHI); alt. the point of a pomegranate, which lies diametrically opposite its stem
b) [line 9] NETZ - the rind of the pomegranate (RASHI); alt. the hair-like flower that surrounds the Pitma and which is surrounded by the crown-like protrusion at the top of a pomegranate
All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood and honey.
The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the Pasuk (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." ("If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei".) By Torah law, the minimal amount of food that is able to become Tamei and make other foods Tamei is a k'Beitzah (see Insights to Chulin 25:1).

20) [line 17] MASCHELEI - the calyx (outer case) which surrounds a date in its early stage of development

21) [line 19] KUFRA - a date in its early stage of development
22) [line 21] SEMADAR - a grape in its budding stage

23) [line 25] SHEVI'IS

(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that (1) they must be considered ownerless. Anyone may come in to any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. (2) The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. (3) The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.

(b) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

24) [line 26] MISHE'YASHRISHU - from when the carob fruits appear as chains
25) [line 27] MISHE'YEGAR'U - when they grow to the size of the white bean
26) [line 27] MISHE'YANITZU - from when the flower starts to open
27) [line 28] MISHE'YOTZI'U - from when they produce fruit
*28*) [line 31] U'KETANI, SHE'AR KOL HA'ILANOS MISHE'YOTZI'U - The Gemara means to ask that tiny Evyonos are also called fruit, so their rinds (the Kafrisin) should be called Shomer, according to Rava.

29) [line 36] PIRCHA D'VITISA - the rind of the caper-berry (RASHI)
30) [line 42] PILPELEI - peppercorns
31) [line 44] ZANGEVILA - ginger
32) [line 49] RETIVTA - moist
b) [line 49] YABESHTA - dry

33) [line 50] HIMALTA - (O.F. letuarie) a medicinal powder made of sweet herbs; alt. ginger (ARUCH)

34) [line 51] BEI HINDEVA'EI - India (possibly the land of the Kassites in the near East. The Kassites were an ancient dynastic family who lived in Babylonia, and are known to have ruled between 1761 and 1185 B.C.E.)

35) [line 52] CHAVITZ KEDEIRAH - a dish of flour, honey, and oil that congeals in a pot

36) [line 52] DAISA - a dish of pounded wheat, grits
37) [line 54] SEMIDA - fine flour

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