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Berachos 34

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 34a [3rd line from end]
"b'Hoda'ah Techilah v'Sof"
See Insights to 34b

1) [line 1] CHAVRUSA KELAPEI SHEMAYA, MI IKA? - can you treat HaSh-m as you would treat your friend? (lit. is there companionship with regard to Heaven?). The Gemara is answering that it is not feasible that a person would not concentrate during the first Pasuk of Keri'as Shema.

2) [line 2] MACHINAN LEI B'MARZAFTA D'NAFCHA - we teach him to have Kavanah, using punishment if necessary. (lit. we strike him with a smith's hammer)

3) [line 6] SARVAN - one who refuses
4) [line 8] MIPNEI HA'TEIRUF - because he may get confused
5) [line 10] HAVTACHASO - he is certain
6) [line 14] SHE'HIKDICHASO MELACH - that was ruined because of too much salt
7) [line 15] MEHAVHEV - prepare himself as if he were about to stand up
8) [line 17] SE'OR - a very heavily fermented dough which is mixed with fresh dough to cause it to rise


9) [line 8] KIDAH - a method of bowing, where only the head and thumbs are on the ground. When reverting to a standing position, only the thumbs are used, and not the arms (RASHI Sukah 53a DH v'Zo and DH Itla)

10) [line 10] KERI'AH - kneeling
11) [line 11] HISHTACHAVA'AH - prostration while outstretching one's hands and feet

12) [line 14] D'MATZLU ATZLUYEI - they lean towards their sides (so as not to be completely face-down)

13) [line 25] A'HAI - during which Berachah [do we see that a mistake is a bad omen]?
14) [line 31] LA'ASOS PERAKMATYA - to deal in merchandise
15) [line 39] YAYIN HA'MESHUMAR BA'ANAVAV - the wine (that has not yet been produced) that is guarded in its grapes

16) [line 42] SHAGAR - sent, dispatched
17) [line 43] SHE'CHALATZTO CHAMAH - the fever has left him
18) [line 48] HETI'ACH - pressed

19) [line 51] "V'CHAVIN PESICHAN LEI B'ILISEI NEGED YERUSHELEM; [V'ZIMNIN TELASA V'YOMA HU BARECH AL BIRCHOHI U'METAZLEI U'MODEI ...] " - "and windows were open for him towards Yerushalayim; and three times a day he would kneel on his knees and pray and give thanks ..." (Daniel 6:11)

20) [line 52] BIKSA - a valley; an open field (RASHI, TOSFOS DH Chatzif [1st explanation]); a place in a valley where there are many passers-by and wayfarers (TOSFOS ibid. [2nd explanation])

21) [line 52] D'MEFARESH CHATA'EI - that publicizes his sins, when (a) they are not well-known; (b) they are sins between man and HaSh-m. Such sins should be kept private (Gemara Yoma 86b). TOSFOS DH Kesuy explains that a person who keeps his sins private will regret them more readily, and be worthy of pardon, as it states in Berachos 12b.

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