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Berachos 26

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 26a [line 22]:
The words "l'Meikam *Alei l'Tzluyei b'Gavei*"
should be "l'Meikam *b'Gavei l'Tzluyei*" (Dikdukei Sofrim #70)

[2] Rashi 26a DH l'Vasikin:
The words "*u'Mitzvaso Makdimim l'Achar* Hanetz he'Chamah *l'Hispalel*"
should be "*u'Mitzvah l'Hakdim Kodem* Hanetz he'Chamah"
(This is the Girsa in Rashi on the Rif)

[3] Gemara 26b [line 36]:
Eivarim u'Fdarim *she'Lo Nis'aklu miba'Erev*
The words "she'Lo Nis'aklu miba'Erev" do not appear in the Tosefta, Ritva
and Dikdukei Sofrim #50. The reason for this is that even if they were not
put on the Mizbe'ach at all, as long as the blood was sprinkled before
sunset, the Eivarim and Pedarim can be offered all night long. (However,
the Rif and Rosh were Gores "she'Lo Nis'aklu mib'Od Yom." The Dikdukei
Sofrim asserts that they must explain the words *she'Lo Nis'aklu* to mean
"even if they *were not put on* the Mizbe'ach at all before sunset," as
does Rashi, Yoma 45a)

[4] Gemara 26b [line 40]:
"Iba'i Lehu, Rebbi Yehudah, Pelag Minchah Kama ... d'Tanya Rebbi Yehudah Omer"
These words do not appear in the Tosefta, Rif, Rosh and Dikdukei Sofrim
#80. The words "11 Sha'os Chaser Revi'a," which follow the above citation,
are clearly the conclusion of the Tosefta (which starts with "Mipenei Mah
Amru"), for why else would the Tosefta which discusses the times of the
various prayers mention Minchah Gedolah and Minchah Ketanah if not to teach
us the meaning of Pelag ha'Minchah. (If we are Gores these words, see below
#15 for their meaning)

1) [line 1] A'KAMTERA - (spread) on a chest of sacred writings
2) [line 9] LAV A'DA'ATA'I - I did not pay attention

3) [line 21] YESH ZIMUN
If an area was designated or a building was built as a bathroom but not yet used as such, there is a difference of opinion as to whether the Zimun (intent) prevents a person from praying inside this place or not. The Halachah is that the intent is not Halachically binding, however it is Asur mid'Rabanan to pray there since this is considered an indignity to Keri'as Shema or Tefilah (Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 83:2). A person who prays inside does not fulfill his obligation of prayer. It is permissible to pray outside within four Amos (ibid.), but there are those who argue (Mishnah Berurah 83:7).

4) [line 22] L'MEIKAM ALEI - to stand on it. See Girsa section #1.
5) [line 22] LI'TZLUYEI B'GAVEI - to pray inside it
6) [line 23] BATEI KISA'EI D'PARSA'EI - Persian toilets, built so that the pit that holds the excrement is far from the hole of the toilet

7a) [line 25] ZAV
Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the egg white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

The Halachah is that a Zav who emitted Zov twice or three times does not become Tahor from his Zivah until 7 "clean" days pass, during which he does not emit any Zov. He is supposed to check himself twice every day; once in the morning and once towards evening. If he emits Zov during those days, he must begin his count all over again (Rambam, Hil. Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1).

b) [line 25] NIDAH
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she can immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah if she has stopped seeing blood. (If she sees blood during the following eleven days, she becomes a Zavah.)

c) [line 26] MESHAMESHES
The Gemara (Nidah 41b) states that a woman who has marital relations is only Temei'ah because of a Gezeiras ha'Kasuv (from Vayikra 15:18), since the Shichvas Zera touches her in a Beis ha'Setarim. Tum'as Beis ha'Setarim refers to an object that is Tamei that comes into contact with the concealed part of a person or object. Under such circumstances, the object cannot make a person Tamei by Maga (touching the object). Accordingly, the only reason that a woman has to immerse in a Mikvah after marital relations is because of the words "v'Rachatzu ba'Mayim" (ibid.)

8) [line 43] EIN LAH KEVA - there is no fixed time of night to say it
9a) [line 48] MATZLI V'AZIL - he can pray Shacharis [all day]
b) [line 55] SHE'NIMNU CHAVEIRAV LI'DVAR MITZVAH - his friends got together to do a Mitzvah


During the winter (from Shemini Atzeres until the first day of Pesach) the phrase "Mashiv ha'Ru'ach u'Morid ha'Geshem (alt. ha'Gashem)" ("You cause the wind to blow and the rain to fall") is added into the second, or Gevuros Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei. This Berachah is called Gevuros (strengths) since it speaks about many things that HaSh-m does which people would call mighty, the greatest among them being the resurrection of the dead. The praise of HaSh-m for giving rain was added there since (a) giving rain is equivalent to the resurrection of the dead in many ways (Gemara Berachos 33a, see Maharsha on Ta'anis 2a DH Ksiv Mechin) (b) the word Gevurah is associated with the verses which describe rain (Gemara Ta'anis 2a).

11) [line 10] SHE'EILAH
The request (She'eilah) for rain is added to the ninth Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei during the winter (from after Shemini Atzeres until the first day of Pesach in Eretz Yisrael; from December 4th or 5th until the first day of Pesach in Chutz la'Aretz). Since this Berachah contains our request for sustenance and a livelihood, it was deemed appropriate to ask HaSh-m for rain there (water being the most essential substance for life).

12) [line 20] "VA'YEFALEL" - "and he prayed" (Tehilim 106:30)
13) [line 36] PEDARIM - fats offered on the Mizbe'ach
14) [line 36] NIS'AKLU - consumed. See Girsa section #3

*15a*) [line 41] PELAG MINCHAH KAMA - That is, Pelag of Minchah Gedolah
*b*) [line 41] PELAG MINCHAH ACHARONAH - That is, Pelag of Minchah Ketanah. This is the explanation of the Re'ah, and so it seems also from Rashi 27a DH Pelag Rishonah (and not like the Gemara originally thought on 27a, that it means the second half of Minchah Ketanah) -- see Girsa section #4

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