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Berachos 20

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 20b [line 7]:
"*d'Rachamei Ninhu*, *Mahu d'Seima ... Ka Mashma Lan*"
Our Girsa is a combination of two Girsa'os.
(1) Originally the Girsa was (as cited by Tosfos DH bi'Tfilah):
"Mahu d'Seima ... Ka Mashma Lan *d'Rachamei Ninhu*".
This is also the Girsa in some manuscripts.
(2) Rashi erased the words "Mahu d'Seima ... Ka Mashma Lan", and was Gores
*only* "d'Rachamei Ninhu" (see Bach #1).
(3) It would seem from Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah that their Girsa was only
"Mahu d'Seima ... Ka Mashma Lan" and that they were not Gores "d'Rachamei
Ninhu" at all. This is also the Girsa in the manuscript of Beis Nasan.

1) [line 5] ISRACHISH LEHU NISA - miracles happened for them
2) [line 7] TENUYEI - learning

Any inedible part of a food that is used to hold the food (e.g. the stem of a fruit or a bone with meat on its end) is considered an extension ("Yad" or "handle") of the food and it may bring Tumah to the food if it was touched by something Tamei. If the food was Tamei and the Yad touched food that was not Tamei, the Yad brings Tum'ah to the other food. A Yad does not combine with the food to make up the requisite Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah (Uktzin 1:1).

The woman mentioned here was pressing vegetables to eliminate their liquids so that they could be dried. As a result, the Yados of the vegetables broke to the extent that the food could not be picked up by them. They therefore do not bring Tum'ah to the food anymore.

4) [line 10] TARFEIHEN - their leaves
5) [line 11] HAVAYOS D'RAV U'SHMU'EL - the difficult questions of Rav and Shmuel (my teachers)

6) [line 12] TELEISAR MESIVTA - (a) thirteen ways of learning the Mishnayos and Beraisos (RASHI) (b) thirteen Yeshivos, each with its own method of learning (TOSFOS). Thirteen is not literal; the connotation is "many".

7) [line 13] SHALIF CHAD MESANEI - take off one of his shoes
8) [line 14] MATZVACH KA TZAVCHINAN - we constantly cry out
*9*) [line 19] KARBALTA - an over-garment that was overly conspicuous and was worn to attract attention due to its (a) blaring red color (ARUCH) or (b) costliness (RASHI, see Maharshal)

10) [line 26] KA MISTEFI - fear
11a) [line 26] DAMYAN B'APAI - they appear to me
b) [line 27] KAKEI CHIVREI - white geese
12) [line 30] D'SHAPIRI - that are good-looking
13) [line 35] OLEI AYIN - raised above the eye, i.e. beyond the power of the evil eye


Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar, Tefilin and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel and Simchah on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos.

15) [line 16] KIDUSH HA'YOM
Reciting or hearing Kidush on Friday night is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama in which women are obligated. It consists of the verses from Bereishis 2:1-3 (preceded by the last words of Bereishis 1:31), the Berachah over a cup of wine, and the Berachah sanctifying the day of Shabbos.

16) [line 32] ME'EIRAH - curse
17) [line 46] MEDAKDEKIM AL ATZMAM - they act strictly with themselves
*18*) [line 54] KEDE'ASHKECHAN B'SINAI - that is, even though Bnei Yisrael at Sinai did not speak, however, since they were listening to the Aseres ha'Dibros, they were considered Shome'a k'Oneh (one who hears can be considered as if he spoke those words) and were required to immerse in a Mikvah.

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