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Berachos 19

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 19a [line 2]:
The words "Lama Lei l'Meimar Lehu, l'Achzukei Lei Tivusa"
should be "Lama Lei l'Meimar, *Ela* l'Achzukei Lei Tivusa"
This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #8. This was also the Girsa of Tosfos
Sotah 34b DH Avosai - see the marginal notes of ha'Rav Berlin (ibid.); see Insights

*1*) [line 1] KI AMAR LEHU, MAI HEVI - see Insights
2) [line 2] L'ACHZUKEI LEI TIVUSA L'MOSHE - so that they should have appreciation for Moshe

3) [line 3] KOL HA'MESAPER ACHAREI HA'MES - anyone who slanders a dead person
4) [line 6] CHAD ISHTA'I MILSA - one person said a bad thing
5a) [line 7] NAFAL KANYA MI'TELALA - a heavy reed or stick fell from the roof
b) [line 8] U'BAZ'A L'ARNEKA D'MOCHEI - and split his skull
6) [line 9] TAVA B'YKAREI - avenges his honor
7) [line 18] L'CHI SISHKACH - when you will find out, i.e. find it yourself
8) [line 18] NAFAK, DAK, V'ASHKACH TELAS - he carried it out, examined the Mishnayos, and found three cases

9) [line 19] HA'MEGIS DA'ATO KELAPEI MA'ALAH - one who is haughty towards Heaven

10) [line 20] MASHKIN
A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery, because she was warned by her husband not to be alone with a certain man, and then she violated the warning.
The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal. An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Mishkan is placed on top of the water. The portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed (which contains numerous appearances of Hashem's name) was written on parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to dissolve and the holy name to be erased. The Sotah would drink from the water. If she had been unfaithful to her husband, the water would enter her body and cause her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she would remain unharmed and would be blessed with children (Bamidbar 5:11-31)
The Mishnah from Eduyos quoted here records a disagreement as to whether certain women are exempt from being made to drink the Mei Sotah.

11) [line 22] DUGMA HISHKUHA - (a) they made someone similar to them (since they were also converts) drink the Mei Sotah (RASHI);
(b) they made her drink something that resembled Mei Sotah (TOSFOS)

12) [line 26] PIKPEK - contested the validity of; made light of
13) [line 29] TZARICH ATAH L'HISNADOS - you ought to be put in Cherem (excommunicated) for troubling Heaven

14) [line 30] SHE'ATAH MISCHATEI - that you (a) do wrong (RASHI) (b) long for (BARTENURA Ta'anis 3:8) (c) are pampered (ARUCH) (d) plead (RABEINU GERSHOM)

15) [line 33] GEDAYIM MEKULASIN - kid-goats roasted in their entirety (like the Korban Pesach)

This was originally a dome-shaped clay oven that was sliced into rings. Sand was placed between each ring and it was plastered together. The Halachah for clay and earthenware utensils is that if they become Tamei, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Rebbi Eliezer ruled that the process of slicing it rendered it Tahor such that it would never become Tamei. It is considered a broken utensil forever. Chachamim held that it could still become Tamei, since the plastering process rejoined the parts to make a whole oven again.

17) [line 38] K'ACHNAI ZEH - like this snake (that coils up like a ring)
18) [line 39] BERCHUHU - they put him in Cherem

*19*) [line 40] MEDAMEH MILSA L'MILSA - he compares one case to another (and supposes that wherever there was a great Machlokes between an individual and the Chachamim or an individual spoke up against a Sage of the Mishnah greater than he, the individual was worthy of being put into Cherem) - (The Rambam lists the 24 causes for excommunication in Hilchos Talmud Torah 6:14)

20) [line 47] SHE'TIGDOR PIRTZOSEINU - you should fence in our breaches
21) [line 49] AL YIFTACH ADAM PIV LA'SATAN - literally, "one should not open his mouth to the Angel of Death," that one should not speak about bad things that could happen to him (as he did here by suggesting that he deserved much more retribution)


22) [line 5] KILAYIM
Any mixture prohibited by the Torah (Vayikra 19:19; Devarim 22:9-11). The Gemara is referring to clothing which contains a mixture of wool and linen. See Insights to Nidah 61:3.

*23*) [line 8] KAVRU ES HA'MES - They (Kohanim) went along to escort those who were burying the dead

24) [line 12] BEIS HA'PERAS
There are three types of Beis ha'Pras: (a) a field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions; (b) a field in which there is a grave which we cannot find; (c) a field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought for burial. In the latter instance, we suspect that: (1) part of the corpse may have dislodged and remains in the field, or (2) the corpse was inadvertently left there and not taken to a cemetery as all. Our Gemara is discussing the first type (a).

The Bartenura offers three explanations for why the word "Pras" was used:

(a) the Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions
(b) the bones are *broken* (Perusim)
(c) peoples *feet* (Parsos) stay away from there
25) [line 13] MENAPE'ACH ADAM - a person blows
26) [line 15] SHE'NIDASH - that was trampled

27) [line 22] OHEL
A space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tumah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but remains inside the Ohel.

A space that is less than a cubic Tefach does not have the law of an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). The Tum'ah of the Mes does not spread throughout the enclosure; rather, it "breaks through" (Boka'as) its enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air.

28) [line 30] ACHICHU ALEI - they laughed at him

29) [line 34] V'HISALAMTA MEHEM
The Torah requires that a person return lost objects that he finds, as stated in Devarim 22:1-3. The wording in the Torah suggests that there are cases when this Mitzvah does not apply, and the Gemara here and in Bava Metzia 30a discuss them.

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