BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Introduction to BerachosBerachos 2
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Mishnah 2a [line 8]:
"v'Lo Zu Bilvad *Amru*
This is also the Girsa of the Rosh. However, in the Mishnayos the word
"Amru" does not appear
 Tosfos 2a DH Mei'eimasai:
The words "umei'Osah Sha'ah Havah Zeman *Tefilah*"
should be "umei'Osah Sha'ah Havah Zeman *Shechivah"
(This is the way it appears in Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz)
 Rashi 2b DH Nichnasin and DH v'Hai Minaihu Me'uchar:
"l'Chulam ... l'Chulam"
The words of Rashi, that the time of "Bnei Adam Ochlim" is the latest of
all, and that the time of "Ani Ochel" is the latest of all, are a
contradiction (as all the Acharonim mention). To solve this problem, the
Maharsha erases the word "l'Chulam" from the first Dibur, since he is of
the opinion that the time of "Ani Ochel" is later the time of "Bnei Adam
Ochlim", even during the week.
The Acharonim (Nachalas David, see also Yefei Einayim; [in the marginal
note of the Gemara, it seems that the Maharshal also argues with the
Maharsha; however, I have not found this in our editions of the Maharshal])
point out from the words of the Gemara that this does not seem to be true.
It is also apparent in the Tosfos ha'Rosh (DH Rav Achai) that he had such a
Girsa in Rashi, and it is likewise evident from Rashi 3a DH Kashya d'Rebbi
Meir and 2b DH mishehe'Ani, that the time of "Bnei Adam Ochlim" is later
than the time of "Ani Ochel" and the time of "Kohanim Nichnasim."
1) [line 2] KORIN ES SHEMA
There is a Mitzvah for every Jewish male to read Keri'as Shema every
evening and morning. The three chapters or Perakim of Keri'as Shema are
Shema (Devarim 6:4-9), v'Hayah Im Shamo'ah (Devarim 11:13-21) and va'Yomer
(Bamidbar 15:37-41). The phrase "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso li'Olam va'Ed"
is recited in an undertone between Shema and v'Hayah Im Shamo'a. There is a
difference of opinion as to whether the obligation is from the Torah or
The reason for the Mitzvah is in order for a person to accept upon himself
HaSh-m's kingship and remember His Oneness to help him refrain from sinning
and being led astray by his animal instincts. (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #420)
2) [line 3] NICHNASIM LE'ECHOL BI'TRUMASAN
Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long
as they are Tehorim. One who becomes Tamei may not eat Terumah until he
immerses in a Mikvah and waits until nightfall.
3) [line 3] HA'ASHMURAH - The night is broken up into Ashmuros, or watches.
There is a difference of opinion as to whether an Ashmurah lasts for three
or four hours. They correspond to the watches of the ministering angels
4) [line 5] SHE'YA'ALEH AMUD HA'SHACHAR
Halachic dawn (lit. when the pillar or ray of the morning rises) marks the
border between the last time to do the Mitzvos of the night and the first
time to do the Mitzvos of the morning.
There are three opinions for the calculation of Halachic dawn: 120, 90 or
72 minutes before sunrise. There is a further difference of opinion as to
whether these are minutes on a clock or minutes of a Sha'ah Zemanis (The
amount of time between sunrise and sunset divided by 12). A different
theory records these times as degrees of the angle of the sun underneath
the horizon: 25.9, 19.75 and 15.99, respectively. (See "Zemanei ha'Halachah
- l'Ma'aseh" by Rav Baruch Ezrachi, Yerushalayim 5736)
5) [line 11] HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EIVARIM
The Avodah of the Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash was done mostly during
the day. The animals needed to be slaughtered; the blood needed to be
sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach; certain fats or Chalavim and limbs or Eivarim
(depending on the specific Korban) needed to be placed upon the bonfire on
the Mizbe'ach. When many Korbanos were offered in a single day, as long as
the blood was sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach before nightfall, the Korban was
Kosher. The fats and limbs were placed on the bonfire throughout the night,
6) [line 12] HA'NE'ECHALIM L'YOM ECHAD
Parts of certain Korbanos are eaten. Some may be eaten only by the Kohanim
and others by anyone who is Tahor. All Korbanos have a time limit within
which they must be eaten. The Mishnah is discussing those Korbanos which
may be eaten on the day that they are slaughtered and the following night,
until dawn. Some examples are Chatas, Asham and Todah.
7) [line 30] TZEIS HA'KOCHAVIM
Halachic night (lit. when the stars come out) marks the beginning of the
time to do the Mitzvos of the night. It follows the time period called Bein
ha'Shemashos (see Background to Daf 2b, #16). There are many opinions for
the calculation of Tzeis ha'Kochavim, ranging from 13.5 to 40 minutes after
sunset. According to the opinion of RABEINU TAM (cited in TOSFOS Shabbos
35a DH Trei and Pesachim 94a DH Rebbi Yehuda), Tzeis ha'Kochavim is 72 or
90 minutes after sunset. (See "Zemanei ha'Halachah - l'Ma'aseh" by Rav
Baruch Ezrachi, Yerushalayim 5736)
8) [line 33] KAPARAH
There are three stages in becoming Tahor for a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and
Metzora: Tevilah (immersing in a Mikvah), He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after
the Tevilah) and a Korban. Kohanim and members of their households who
becomes Tamei may not eat Terumah until they do Tevilah and wait for
nightfall. However, they still may not eat Kodshim until they have brought
their Korban for Kaparah (atonement) the next day.
9) [line 34] BI'AS SHIMSHO - the setting of the sun
10) [last line] TAHER YOMA - the day is gone
11) [line 1] BI'AS ORO - daybreak of the following morning (RASHI); the
beginning of sunset (TOSFOS)
12) [line 1] TAHER GAVRA - the person becomes Tahor because of his Korbanos
(RASHI); the person becomes Tahor since the required time has passed
13) [line 4] IDKI YOMA - the sun has gone (RASHI)
14) [line 22] "V'CHETZYAM MACHAZIKIM BA'REMACHIM" - "and half of them held
the spears" (Nechemyah 4:15)
15) [line 26] D'MECHASHCHEI U'MEKADMEI - they stayed late and came early
16) [line 51] A'BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS DIDACH
*Halachic* sunset according to Rebbi Yehudah starts from the time the sun
sets and lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk a
certain distance. The Gemara (Shabbos 34b) records a difference of opinion
as to whether this distance is two thirds or three quarters of a Mil.
RASHI writes that this distance is half of a Mil.
*Halachic* sunset according to Rebbi Yosi lasts as long as the (gentle)
blink of an eye. Beforehand is day; afterwards is night. There is a
difference of opinion as to whether the sunset of Rebbi Yosi occurs after
or during the sunset of Rebbi Yehudah.
17) [last line] K'HEREF AYIN - like the blink of an eye