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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Beitzah 32

BEITZAH 32 (13 Tamuz) has been dedicated in memory of Rebbetzin Chiena Kossowsky A"H by the Shulman and Kossowsky families.



(a) Shmuel permits unraveling and cutting ropes that tie doors of vessels, both on Yom-Tov and on Shabbos. He establishes the Beraisa which forbids them on Shabbos - like Rebbi Nechemyah, who forbids the use of vessels for anything other than what they are made for. Consequently, one is not permitted to use a knife for unraveling and cutting ropes, since it was made to cut food, and not made for cutting ropes.

(b) This creates a problem however - because there is no reason for Rebbi Nechemyah to differentiate between Shabbos and Yom-Tov in this regard, so why does the Beraisa permit the unraveling and cutting of ropes that tie doors of vessels on *Yom-Tov*?

(c) The author of the Beraisa ...

1. ... which permits lighting a fire with complete vessels but not with vessels which broke on Yom-Tov (which are Muktzah) - is Rebbi Yehudah, who *holds* of Muktzah.
2. ... which permits it even with vessels which broke on Yom-Tov - is Rebbi Shimon, who does *not*.
3. ... which forbids it even with complete vessels - is Rebbi Nechemyah (whose opinion we just discussed).
(d) We reconcile the first Beraisa (in 1a.) which quotes Rebbi Nechemyah as being more lenient on Yom-Tov than on Shabbos, with the latter Beraisa (in the previous question in 3) which quotes him as being equally strict on Yom- Tov as on Shabbos - by establishing a Machlokes Tana'im in Rebbi Nechemyah's opinion.
(a) 'Ein Pochsin es ha'Ner' means - to take a raw piece of potter's clay and punch a cavity in it, in order to fill it with oil and use it as a lamp.
This is forbidden - because of Tikun K'li.

(b) One may ...

  1. ... not make coal (which is a K'li that is used by gold-smiths) on Yom-Tov - because of Tikun K'li.
  2. ... cut a wick in two - for the same reason.
(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah - one can get round this prohibition by burning the wick in two (this will be explained later).
(a) According to Rebbi Meir, an earthenware vessel is subject to Tum'ah as soon as it is completed - which is as soon as the cavity to hold liquid has been punched in it.

(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua, it only becomes subject to Tum'ah when it has been fired in a kiln.

(c) Rav Yosef thought that the author of our Mishnah ('Ein Pochsin es ha'Ner') must be Rebbi Meir, who does not require firing in a kiln to complete an earthenware vessel.

(a) According to the second Lashon, Rav Yosef establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok (of the Mishnah in Eduyos). The Tana Kama there differentiates between the frying-pans of towns-people and those of city- folk - on account of the fact that the former are not particular about their vessels, and are prepared to use them even before they have been and fired in the kiln and even before they have been punched.

(b) According to the Tana Kama, if these pans ...

1. ... are under the same roof as a corpse - they remain Tahor (since they have no cavity, and as far as Tum'as Meis is concerned, it is only earthenware vessels which *are* receptacles which are subject to Tum'as Meis.
2. ... are carried by a Zav - they become Tamei, because a Zav renders all vessels Tamei by moving them, even earthenware vessels that are *not* receptacles.
(c) According to Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok, they remain Tahor even if a Zav moves them - because they have not yet been completed.


1. Abaye queries Rav Yosef's contention (in both Leshonos) - on the grounds that both Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok only consider an earthenware vessel complete because it is a receptacle because it can be used for something useful (to hold fruit etc.), but what use does a clay egg with a cavity have?
2. The Gemara nevertheless substantiates Rav Yosef - on the grounds that they are fit to hold small coins.
(a) The Tana Kama forbids making the frying-pans of towns-people on Yom-Tov - Raban Shimon ben Gamliel permits it (presumably because they are not proper vessels (like the Tana Kama of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok) and making them is not Tikun K'li.

(b) Our Mishnah forbids making coal on Yom-Tov. Coal was used by the bath- house attendants on Yom-Tov.

(c) The bath-attendants were permitted to use coal on Yom-Tov - for a Turkish- bath (before Chazal included Turkish baths in the Isur of bathing on Shabbos and Yom-Tov).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah permits cutting a wick in two by burning it. If making a wick constitutes Tikun Mana, asks the Gemara, then what difference does it make whether one cuts it with a knife, or with a flame?

(b) We resolve this Kashya - by establishing Rebbi Yehudah when he has one long wick for two lights. What Rebbi Yehudah advises him to do - is to place the two ends of the wick into the two lamp-holders and kindle the wick in the middle. This will be permitted since it is not evident that he intends to cut the wick in two; to the onlooker, he may well be just kindling the two lights simultaneously.




(a) When Rav Nasan bar Aba Amar Rav says 'Mochtin es ha'Pesilah be'Yom-Tov' - he means that one is permitted to remove the charcoal from the top of the wick.

(b) We have just learned about two of the six things that Bar Kapara's Beraisa says about a wick. Besides that, one is ...

  1. ... not permitted to twist a wick or singe it.
  2. ... permitted to soften it with one's hands or soak it in oil.
(c) Because they are irregular ways of performing Tikun Mana (which Chazal permitted in these cases).
(a) When Shabsa'i bar Merinus arrived in Bavel and asked for assistance in business - they refused him; then, when he asked for food, they refused him that too.

(b) The Torah writes "ve'Nasan Lecha Rachamim ve'Richamcha". Consequently - Jews who are devoid of the quality of mercy (and this includes the wealthy men of Bavel), can only be descended from the Eirev Rav, and not from the children of Avraham Avinu.

(c) The wealthy men of Bavel are destined to go to Gehinom (Hell).

(d) Rav Nasan bar Aba (the author of the previous statement) also said about anyone who relies on others for their food 'Olam Choshech Ba'ado'. Rav Chisda added to that that 'his life is not worth living'.

(a) The Beraisa also writes 'Chayeihem Einam Chayim' - about someone whose wife controls him, and someone whose body is racked by suffering.

(b) A person who possesses only one cloak might be added to the list - because such a garment will become lice-infested, and he will inevitably become covered with lice.

(c) The Tana Kama does not include him in the list - because it is possible to avoid that fate by delousing his clothes.

(a) The Tana of our Mishnah forbids breaking a piece of clay or cutting paper on Yom-Tov - which were needed for breaking these commodities down to the required size, and then to place them underneath the fish as it roasted on the grill (the paper soaked in water - or oil).

(b) Nor may one clear out the pieces of cement (with which one had cemented the door shut) from the oven. If they were heaped up on the oven floor and threatened to burn the bread that was stuck to the oven walls to bake - one could arrange them flat on the oven floor.

(c) 'Ein Makifin Sh'tei Chaviyos' means - that one is forbidden to place two barrels close to each other, to place a pot on top of them to cook over the fire that burned in between them. It is forbidden - because it resembles making an Ohel.

(d) The Tana forbids supporting a pot with a block of wood - because wood is designated for making fires, and not for anything else (Note: This Sevara does not apply to vessels, only to things like wood and earth - with the exception of Rebbi Nechemyah, whose opinion we discussed at the beginning of this Daf).

(a) The Tana Kama also forbids using a stick when leading an animal through the street, which initially, we think is forbidden - because it is Muktzah.

(b) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon permits it.

(c) If the pile of rubble in the oven (which our Tana forbids to remove) renders cooking impossible - then it may be removed (like Rebbi Yehudah, who permits, wherever necessary, all kinds of Ochel Nefesh that could not have been performed before Yom-Tov).

(d) When a half-brick fell into the oven on Yom-Tov - Rebbi Chiya told his wife that he wanted to eat good-quality bread (intimating that she should clear out the oven before baking).

(a) The problem that Ravina had with the information that Rav Ashi's servants used to cement the oven shut to prevent the heat from escaping was - that the cement would require mixing with water, which is forbidden because it is a Toldah of Lishah (though it is unclear why Lishah should be forbidden on Yom-Tov, seeing as it was for the needs of Ochel Nefesh, and could not be performed before Yom-Tov).

(b) Rav Ashi alleviated his fears - by pointing out that he used the clay from the banks of the River Euphrates, which did not require mixing.

(c) That was only valid however - if that clay was designated to be used on Yom-Tov and moved to one side on Erev Yom-Tov.

(d) One may use ashes (mixed with water) to cement the oven shut - because they do not mix properly (see Tosfos DH 've'Kitma').

(a) Rav Nachman permitted the placing of large stones in a field to form a make-shift toilet, which (unlike the placing of two barrels close to one another as a base for a pot, which our Mishnah forbids) does not resemble making an Ohel (because it does not have a roof). (Note: It appears from here, that a human being - who forms the roof as he sits on the seat - is not considered a roof).

(b) Constructing a make-shift seat on the basis that it has no roof is Asur mi'de'Rabbanan. Nevertheless - Chazal permitted it by a toilet-seat because of Kavod ha'Beriy'os (human dignity).

(c) 'Madurta' - is a large fire (that was usually lit for important dignitaries), where the wood was arranged in the form of four walls and a roof.

(d) A Madurta is permitted on Yom-Tov - provided one starts from the top (one somehow arranges the sticks on top first).

14) Bei'asa, Kedeira, Purya and Chavita are permitted - provided one starts from the top just like Madurta.
1. 'Bei'asa' - constitutes large eggs that are stood in a holed vessel (such as a grill). The eggs must be placed in the grill before one sets it on the coals, to avoid making an Ohel.
2. 'Purya' - refers to a framed bed on top of which one spreads a large piece of leather (on which one lies). In order to set it up, the piece of leather must be held in place first, and the frame moved into place afterwards.
3. 'Chavita' - refers to rows of barrels stacked one on top of the other. This too, may not be performed on Yom-Tov, because it resembles forming an Ohel.
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