ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBeitzah 32
BEITZAH 32 (13 Tamuz) has been dedicated in memory of Rebbetzin Chiena
Kossowsky A"H by the Shulman and Kossowsky families.
(a) Shmuel permits unraveling and cutting ropes that tie doors of vessels,
both on Yom-Tov and on Shabbos. He establishes the Beraisa which forbids
them on Shabbos - like Rebbi Nechemyah, who forbids the use of vessels for
anything other than what they are made for. Consequently, one is not
permitted to use a knife for unraveling and cutting ropes, since it was made
to cut food, and not made for cutting ropes.
(b) This creates a problem however - because there is no reason for Rebbi
Nechemyah to differentiate between Shabbos and Yom-Tov in this regard, so
why does the Beraisa permit the unraveling and cutting of ropes that tie
doors of vessels on *Yom-Tov*?
(c) The author of the Beraisa ...
1. ... which permits lighting a fire with complete vessels but not with
vessels which broke on Yom-Tov (which are Muktzah) - is Rebbi Yehudah, who
*holds* of Muktzah.
(d) We reconcile the first Beraisa (in 1a.) which quotes Rebbi Nechemyah as
being more lenient on Yom-Tov than on Shabbos, with the latter Beraisa (in
the previous question in 3) which quotes him as being equally strict on Yom-
Tov as on Shabbos - by establishing a Machlokes Tana'im in Rebbi Nechemyah's
2. ... which permits it even with vessels which broke on Yom-Tov - is Rebbi
Shimon, who does *not*.
3. ... which forbids it even with complete vessels - is Rebbi Nechemyah
(whose opinion we just discussed).
(a) 'Ein Pochsin es ha'Ner' means - to take a raw piece of potter's clay and
punch a cavity in it, in order to fill it with oil and use it as a lamp.
This is forbidden - because of Tikun K'li.
(b) One may ...
(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah - one can get round this prohibition by
burning the wick in two (this will be explained later).
- ... not make coal (which is a K'li that is used by gold-smiths) on Yom-Tov - because of Tikun K'li.
- ... cut a wick in two - for the same reason.
(a) According to Rebbi Meir, an earthenware vessel is subject to Tum'ah as
soon as it is completed - which is as soon as the cavity to hold liquid has
been punched in it.
(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua, it only becomes subject to Tum'ah when it
has been fired in a kiln.
(c) Rav Yosef thought that the author of our Mishnah ('Ein Pochsin es
ha'Ner') must be Rebbi Meir, who does not require firing in a kiln to
complete an earthenware vessel.
(a) According to the second Lashon, Rav Yosef establishes our Mishnah like
Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok (of the Mishnah in Eduyos). The Tana Kama there
differentiates between the frying-pans of towns-people and those of city-
folk - on account of the fact that the former are not particular about their
vessels, and are prepared to use them even before they have been and fired
in the kiln and even before they have been punched.
(b) According to the Tana Kama, if these pans ...
1. ... are under the same roof as a corpse - they remain Tahor (since they
have no cavity, and as far as Tum'as Meis is concerned, it is only
earthenware vessels which *are* receptacles which are subject to Tum'as
(c) According to Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok, they remain Tahor even if a
Zav moves them - because they have not yet been completed.
2. ... are carried by a Zav - they become Tamei, because a Zav renders all
vessels Tamei by moving them, even earthenware vessels that are *not*
1. Abaye queries Rav Yosef's contention (in both Leshonos) - on the grounds
that both Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok only consider an
earthenware vessel complete because it is a receptacle because it can be
used for something useful (to hold fruit etc.), but what use does a clay egg
with a cavity have?
2. The Gemara nevertheless substantiates Rav Yosef - on the grounds that
they are fit to hold small coins.
(a) The Tana Kama forbids making the frying-pans of towns-people on Yom-Tov
- Raban Shimon ben Gamliel permits it (presumably because they are not
proper vessels (like the Tana Kama of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok) and
making them is not Tikun K'li.
(b) Our Mishnah forbids making coal on Yom-Tov. Coal was used by the bath-
house attendants on Yom-Tov.
(c) The bath-attendants were permitted to use coal on Yom-Tov - for a
Turkish- bath (before Chazal included Turkish baths in the Isur of bathing
on Shabbos and Yom-Tov).
(a) Rebbi Yehudah permits cutting a wick in two by burning it. If making a
wick constitutes Tikun Mana, asks the Gemara, then what difference does it
make whether one cuts it with a knife, or with a flame?
(b) We resolve this Kashya - by establishing Rebbi Yehudah when he has one
long wick for two lights. What Rebbi Yehudah advises him to do - is to place
the two ends of the wick into the two lamp-holders and kindle the wick in
the middle. This will be permitted since it is not evident that he intends
to cut the wick in two; to the onlooker, he may well be just kindling the
two lights simultaneously.
(a) When Rav Nasan bar Aba Amar Rav says 'Mochtin es ha'Pesilah be'Yom-Tov'
- he means that one is permitted to remove the charcoal from the top of the
(b) We have just learned about two of the six things that Bar Kapara's
Beraisa says about a wick. Besides that, one is ...
(c) Because they are irregular ways of performing Tikun Mana (which Chazal
permitted in these cases).
- ... not permitted to twist a wick or singe it.
- ... permitted to soften it with one's hands or soak it in oil.
(a) When Shabsa'i bar Merinus arrived in Bavel and asked for assistance in
business - they refused him; then, when he asked for food, they refused him
(b) The Torah writes "ve'Nasan Lecha Rachamim ve'Richamcha". Consequently -
Jews who are devoid of the quality of mercy (and this includes the wealthy
men of Bavel), can only be descended from the Eirev Rav, and not from the
children of Avraham Avinu.
(c) The wealthy men of Bavel are destined to go to Gehinom (Hell).
(d) Rav Nasan bar Aba (the author of the previous statement) also said about
anyone who relies on others for their food 'Olam Choshech Ba'ado'. Rav
Chisda added to that that 'his life is not worth living'.
(a) The Beraisa also writes 'Chayeihem Einam Chayim' - about someone whose
wife controls him, and someone whose body is racked by suffering.
(b) A person who possesses only one cloak might be added to the list -
because such a garment will become lice-infested, and he will inevitably
become covered with lice.
(c) The Tana Kama does not include him in the list - because it is possible
to avoid that fate by delousing his clothes.
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah forbids breaking a piece of clay or cutting
paper on Yom-Tov - which were needed for breaking these commodities down to
the required size, and then to place them underneath the fish as it roasted
on the grill (the paper soaked in water - or oil).
(b) Nor may one clear out the pieces of cement (with which one had cemented
the door shut) from the oven. If they were heaped up on the oven floor and
threatened to burn the bread that was stuck to the oven walls to bake - one
could arrange them flat on the oven floor.
(c) 'Ein Makifin Sh'tei Chaviyos' means - that one is forbidden to place two
barrels close to each other, to place a pot on top of them to cook over the
fire that burned in between them. It is forbidden - because it resembles
making an Ohel.
(d) The Tana forbids supporting a pot with a block of wood - because wood is
designated for making fires, and not for anything else (Note: This Sevara
does not apply to vessels, only to things like wood and earth - with the
exception of Rebbi Nechemyah, whose opinion we discussed at the beginning of
(a) The Tana Kama also forbids using a stick when leading an animal through
the street, which initially, we think is forbidden - because it is Muktzah.
(b) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon permits it.
(c) If the pile of rubble in the oven (which our Tana forbids to remove)
renders cooking impossible - then it may be removed (like Rebbi Yehudah, who
permits, wherever necessary, all kinds of Ochel Nefesh that could not have
been performed before Yom-Tov).
(d) When a half-brick fell into the oven on Yom-Tov - Rebbi Chiya told his
wife that he wanted to eat good-quality bread (intimating that she should
clear out the oven before baking).
(a) The problem that Ravina had with the information that Rav Ashi's
servants used to cement the oven shut to prevent the heat from escaping was
- that the cement would require mixing with water, which is forbidden
because it is a Toldah of Lishah (though it is unclear why Lishah should be
forbidden on Yom-Tov, seeing as it was for the needs of Ochel Nefesh, and
could not be performed before Yom-Tov).
(b) Rav Ashi alleviated his fears - by pointing out that he used the clay
from the banks of the River Euphrates, which did not require mixing.
(c) That was only valid however - if that clay was designated to be used on
Yom-Tov and moved to one side on Erev Yom-Tov.
(d) One may use ashes (mixed with water) to cement the oven shut - because
they do not mix properly (see Tosfos DH 've'Kitma').
(a) Rav Nachman permitted the placing of large stones in a field to form a
make-shift toilet, which (unlike the placing of two barrels close to one
another as a base for a pot, which our Mishnah forbids) does not resemble
making an Ohel (because it does not have a roof). (Note: It appears from
here, that a human being - who forms the roof as he sits on the seat - is
not considered a roof).
Bei'asa, Kedeira, Purya and Chavita are permitted - provided one starts from
the top just like Madurta.
(b) Constructing a make-shift seat on the basis that it has no roof is Asur
mi'de'Rabbanan. Nevertheless - Chazal permitted it by a toilet-seat because
of Kavod ha'Beriy'os (human dignity).
(c) 'Madurta' - is a large fire (that was usually lit for important
dignitaries), where the wood was arranged in the form of four walls and a
(d) A Madurta is permitted on Yom-Tov - provided one starts from the top
(one somehow arranges the sticks on top first).
1. 'Bei'asa' - constitutes large eggs that are stood in a holed vessel (such
as a grill). The eggs must be placed in the grill before one sets it on the
coals, to avoid making an Ohel.
2. 'Purya' - refers to a framed bed on top of which one spreads a large
piece of leather (on which one lies). In order to set it up, the piece of
leather must be held in place first, and the frame moved into place
3. 'Chavita' - refers to rows of barrels stacked one on top of the other.
This too, may not be performed on Yom-Tov, because it resembles forming an