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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Beitzah 30



(a) One is obligated to make a Shinuy when carrying loads in the street. Rava initiated various changes in Mechuza: from Duchka to Rigla, from Rigla to Igra, and from Igra to Achpa.
1. Duchka - is a load that one carries with difficulty on one's shoulders, such as a sack of fruit.
2. Rigla - is a pitch-fork (a Shinuy which makes carrying the sack of fruit easier). This method of carrying is normally used for transporting a large barrel.
3. Igra - is a pole that is normally carried on the shoulders of two people (similar to that used by the spies).
4. Achpa - means to carry that same pole in their hands.
(b) If possible, the change should be initiated to lighten the load, to facilitate the transportation; but if not, then it doesn't matter if the change makes no difference, as long as it does not make it more difficult (see also Tosfos DH 'de'Daru'). See Hagahos ha'Gra, for a completely different interpretation of all the methods of transportation.

(c) If one is carrying a load that is normally carried be'Achpa - one spreads a cloth over the top.

(d) If one invited a lot of guests, and needed to carry a lot of barrels, or for some other reason the Shinuy is not possible, then one may go ahead and transport the food without it.

(a) Women used to draw and subsequently carry, the water in the regular jars, without making a Shinuy. They did not draw it ...
1. ... in smaller ones - because that would have entailed more journeys (see Tosfos Dh 'de'Malya' - who points out that earlier, we permitted this for the needs of a Shinuy).
2. ... in larger ones - one increases the burden.
(b) Nor did they cover the jars ...
1. ... with a wooden lid - because then it would need to be tied, in which case we are afraid that the knot comes undone and they inadvertently re-tie it. Consequently, it is better without it.
2. ... with a cloth - for fear that it becomes soaked, and they inadvertently wring it out.
(a) Clapping hands together or against one's thigh and dancing, are forbidden on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. Nevertheless, one does not stop people from doing it - because of the principle 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin ve'Lo Yihyu Mezidin' ('It is better that one transgresses be'Shogeg than one does so be'Meizid').

(b) Abaye proves this from women - who used to sit with their barrels in between the posts that marked the entrance to the Mavoy (which is normally forbidden mi'de'Rabbanan, for fear that, not seeing them, as one does from the outside), one may come to carry out of the Mavoy into the street.

(c) The principle of 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin ... ' also extends to Isurim d'Oraysa - such as Tosfos Yom Kipur (around half an hour before Sheki'ah). Note: According to the Poskim, it does not apply to something that is written *explicitly* in the Torah.

(a) A Muktzah (so called because it is pushed away - like a Muktzah object on Shabbos and Yom-Tov - behind the house) - is a kind of storage-yard for wood and other objects that are not in current use, .

(b) The Seifa of the Mishnah appears to be self-contradictory - first it says 'u'Maschilin be'Ormas ha'Teven', implying that this Tana does *not* hold of Muktzah, and then it continues 'Aval Lo be'Eitzim she'be'Muktzah', implying that it *does*.

(c) We establish the entire Mishnah either like Rebbi Shimon, or like Rebbi Yehudah. We establish ...

1. ... either (even) the Seifa like Rebbi Shimon - since it speaks about a case of a Muktzah of valuable objects, because even Rebbi Shimon concedes 'Muktzah Machmas Chesaron Kis'.
2. ... or (even) the Reisha like Rebbi Yehudah - since it speaks about a case of rotten straw, which is no longer fit for animals (only for fire- wood).
(d) It speaks however, about rotten straw that also contains thorns, and is unfit to be used even for cement.



(a) One may not take fire-wood from the S'chach of a Sukah on the Yom-Tov of Pesach of Shavu'os - because it constitutes 'S'tiras Ohel' (demolishing a roof).

(b) We initially interpret the Heter of 'Ela min ha'Samuch Lah' - to refer to the excess S'chach that lies on top of the bottom layer that covers the Sukah.

(c) The problem with this is - that seeing as there no technical difference between the bottom layer of S'chach and that which lies on top of it, the Chiyuv of S'tiras Ohel applies equally to all the layers.

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel establishes 'Ela min ha'Samuch Lah' by wood that is leaning against the *wall* of the Sukah. S'tiras Ohel does not apply there - because the wood in question is not attached to the Sukah in the way that the wall is.

(b) Rav Menashya re-establishes the Seifa by wood on top of the Sukah - i.e. bundles of wood, which, by virtue of the fact that one did not untie them, are not Batel to the rest of the S'chach, and are not therefore, subject to S'tiras Ohel.

(a) Rebbi Shimon holds that a lamp which was lit before Shabbos is not Muktzah, and the oil is permitted once the lamp goes out - because a person expects his lamp to go out eventually (which is why he does not push it out of his mind) - whereas one can hardly say that a person expects his Sukah to collapse?

(b) So, in order to fit the fallen Sukah into the same category as the lamp, we establish it by a Sukah that was weak and threatening to collapse already from before Yom-Tov(and which, similar to the lamp, he expected to fall).

(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa holds - that it is nevertheless Muktzah (seeing as one was unable to extinguish it).

(a) Rav Sheshes quoting Rebbi Akiva (and Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira) Darshan from "*Chag* ha'Sukos Ta'aseh Lecha Shiv'as Yamim" - that the wood of a Sukah is Asur all seven days, because it adopts a certain Kedushah (like a Korban *Chagigah*).

(b) When the Tana writes (immediately after 've'Shavin be'Sukas ha'Chag be'Chag she'Hi Asurah') that a condition made before Yom-Tov is effective - he refers (not to a Sukah on Sukos, as he would appear to, but) to the statement before that which speaks about a Sukah on Peasch or Shavu'os.

(c) The Beraisa, which validates such a condition with regard to any type of ornaments that one hangs in the Sukah *even on Sukos* - refers to the specifically-worded condition of 'Eini Bodel Meihem' (meaning that one retains one's juristiction over them the entire Bein-Hashemashos (in which case they never have a chance to adopt Kedushah).

(d) Such a condition will not be effective by the wood of the Sukah itself - seeing as the fact that he cannot possibly demolish it during Bein Hashemashos renders the condition futile.

(a) If someone designates seven Esrogim for the seven days of Sukos (one for each day), Rav permits each Esrog to be eaten immediately after use on the same day. According to Rav Asi - each Esrog remains Asur until the following day.

(b) The Esrogim are not forbidden until after Sukos, like the wood of the Sukah - because, whereas the Mitzvah of Sukah extends from the beginning of Sukos until the end, that of Lulav only lasts until the end of the day; the next day is a new Mitzvah.

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