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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Beitzah 23



(a) Even though Molid Rei'ach is forbidden on Yom-Tov, one is permitted to roll spices or even to break them to produce their aroma - because one is not creating a *new* aroma, only increasing one that is already there.

(b) Rava finally permits Ishun even on coal - because it is no worse than placing meat on coal, which also results in Kibuy and Hav'arah, as well as creating a new smell on the coal, yet it is permitted (and as for not being Shaveh le'Chol Nefesh, Rava holds like Shmuel, who compares this to Shechting a deer, as we explained at the end of the previous Amud).

(a) Rav Geviha from Bei Kasil permits 'Kitura' on Yom-Tov. 'Kitura' - means either folding clothes professionally or smoking fruit.

(b) Ameimar thinks that folding clothes professionally should be Asur because of Libun, and smoking fruit either because of Mechabeh or because of Molid Reicha.

(c) Rav Ashi finally interprets 'Kitura' to mean - smoking fruit, and the reason that it is permitted is because it is no worse than placing meat on burning coals (as we just explained in 1b.).

(a) Todos Ish Romi introduced in Rome - the custom of preparing a kid for the Seder, roasted whole.

(b) The Chachamim sent him a message - that if not for the fact that he was a great man, they would place him in Cherem.

(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah allowed his cow to go in the street with a pretty strap tied round its horns, scraping an animal on Yom-Tov with a wooden or a metal brush, and grinding peppercorns in their own mill (even though it resembles a wheat-mill - Hagahos Oshri, Si'man 24).

(b) Rebbi Yehudah partially disagrees with Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah's leniency regarding scraping an animal - he forbids using a metal brush with small teeth, but concedes that a wooden one with large teeth is permitted.

(c) Our Mishnah relates how Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya allowed his cow to go out with a strap between its horns - implying that he only had *one* cow; but did Rav not inform us that Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (an extremely wealthy man) used to Ma'aser thirteen thousand calves from his herd annually?

(d) It was not Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah whose cow went in the street with the strap, but his neighbor. And because he did not rebuke her, Chazal consider it as if *he* himself had sinned.

(a) The Chachamim of Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah forbid scraping a cow on Yom- Tov - irrespective of whether it is a metal one or a wooden one.

(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (who permits even using a metal brush with fine teeth) holds 'Davar she'Ein Miskavein Mutar' (like Rebbi Shimon); Rebbi Yehudah forbids a metal brush - because he holds 'Davar she'Ein Miskavein, Asur'. He does *not* however, decree a wooden brush because of a metal one; the Rabbanan follow the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah regarding 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven', and they *do* decree a wooden brush because of a metal one.

(c) When Rav Nachman (possible quoting Shmuel) ruled like Rebbi Shimon, because Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah holds like him - he merely meant to say that he ruled like Rebbi Shimon in any case, and that, in addition, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah held like that, too.

(d) We cannot understand Rav Nachman's statement literally - because then, he might just as well have said that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah, because the Chachamim hold like *him*.



6) 'A pepper-corn mill is subject to Tum'ah because of three vessels: because of a receptacle, because of a metal vessel and because of a sifting vessel'. In the context of our Mishnah ...

1. ... a receptacle - refers to the bottom vessel, which is meant to receive the ground pepper, and which is subject to Tum'ah just like any other wooden receptacle.
2. ... a metal vessel - refers to the top vessel, which grinds the peppercorns. It is not a receptacle, but is subject to Tum'ah, because it is made of metal.
3. ... a sifting vessel - refers to the middle vessel, which sifts the flour, and which min ha'Torah, is not subject to Tum'ah if it is made of wood, because it is not a receptacle; however, the Rabbanan decreed (potential Tum'ah) on anything which is woven, and the sifting section of this middle vessel is woven.


(a) A baby-carriage is subject to Tum'as Medras - because it is made for a child to sit in, and whatever is made for the specific purpose of standing, sitting or lying is subject to Tum'as Medras.

(b) Consequently, if the child who sits in it is a Zav, the carriage becomes Tamei Medras.

(c) It may also be picked up on Shabbos (i.e. it is not Muktzah), but it may only be pulled along the ground on cloths - because otherwise, it plows up the earth as it moves along, which involves plowing (in the field) or building (in the house).

(d) Rebbi Yehudah permits even pulling it along the ground without cloths - because it merely makes grooves by pushing the earth in, without actually plowing it (which comprises churning it).

(a) The author of our Mishnah (who forbids pulling the baby-carriage without cloths) cannot be Rebbi Shimon - because he holds 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven, Mutar'.

(b) In that case - the author must be Rebbi Yehudah.

(c) We reconcile this with the Seifa of our Mishnah, where Rebbi Yehudah specifically permits pulling the baby-carriage without cloths - by establishing a Machlokes Tana'im as to what Rebbi Yehudah holds here.

(d) The Tana Kama (in the name of Rebbi Yehudah) holds that the wheels of the baby-carriage sometimes plow the earth (when the wheels fail to go round properly); whereas, according to the Tana of the Seifa, the wheels push the earth down, and do not plow it.

***** Hadran Alach 'Yom-Tov' *****

***** Perek Ein Tzadin *****

(a) A Bibar ...
  1. ... for fish - is a fish-pond.
  2. ... for wild animals - is an enclosure.
(b) Our Mishnah forbids catching fish on Yom-Tov - because one could have caught them before Yom-Tov, and left them in the water still in the net, where they would not have deteriorated (See also Tosfos DH 'Ein Tzadin').

(c) Even those who permit preparing food for animals on Yom-Tov agree that one may not feed fish - because the fish can feed themselves on the vegetation that grows on the river-bed, on the earth or even by eating smaller fish.

(a) In spite of the fact that catching fish from a Bibar is forbidden on Yom-Tov, catching wild animals and birds is permitted - because they are already considered caught, and taking them from there is not considered a Melachah.

(b) Although feeding them in the summer, when there is normally plenty of grass to satisfy their needs, ought to be forbidden - we are speaking in a place where many people walk, spoiling the animals' feeding-ground and depriving them of their basic food.

(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says that not all enclosures are the same - if the animal lacks trapping, then it is forbidden to catch it; if it does not, it is permitted.

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