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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Beitzah 21

BEITZAH 21 & 22 - have been dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, NBG'M (3 Tamuz), by one of his Chasidim.



(a) Rav Ivya the elder queried Rav Huna, when he ruled that one may Shecht on Yom-Tov, an animal that is owned jointly by a Jew and a Nochri - because why should this be any different than Nedarim and Nedavos, which are also shared by Hashem and the owner, yet they are forbidden.

(b) Rav Huna answered that a raven just flew past - he changed the subject.

(c) The reason that he put Rav Ivya off was - because he had just held a long Derashah, and was feeling faint because he had not yet eaten.

(d) The correct answer is - because half of the animal shared by a Jew and a Nochri belongs to the Jew. Consequently, when he Shechts, he Shechts his own animal, and since one cannot even eat a k'Zayis of meat without Shechting the entire animal, it is permitted to do so. Nedarim and Nedavos, on the other hand, belong to Hashem, and the Kohanim and the owner receive their respective portions from Hashem's table. Consequently, Shechting them is forbidden, since they are not "Lachem".

2) Even though Rav Chisda agrees with Rav Huna in the previous case, he nevertheless goes on to forbid baking a dough that is jointly owned by a Jew and a Nochri - because it is possible to divide the dough (in which case, there is no reason to permit baking the half that belongs to the Nochri).


(a) 'Iysas Kelavim' - is a dough that the shepherds would bake for the dogs.

(b) Iysas Kelavim is considered bread with regard to Chalah, an Eiruv etc. and fulfilling one's obligation on Pesach - provided it is made in such a way that the shepherds will also eat from it (i.e. it does not contain too much coarse bran).

(c) It is also considered bread - with regard to Birchas ha'Motzi, Mezuman and one may bake it on Yom-Tov.

(d) According to what we learned earlier ("Lachem" - ve'Lo ... li'Kelavim'), Rav Chisda initially gives the reason for this dough being permitted (to bake on Yom-Tov), in spite of the fact that a dough that is jointly owned by a Jew and a Nochri, is forbidden - because (in the event that an animal dies) the shepherd can appease the dogs with a carcass with which they will be perfectly satisfied, and the dough will then be entirely his.

(a) According to Rabah, someone who bakes on Yom-Tov after he has already eaten, does not receive Malkos - because of 'Ho'il ('since' guests might come; and, if they do, what he baked will be used on Yom-Tov).

(b) Rav Chisda does not hold of 'Ho'il'.

(c) But we just established (in 3d.) that Rav Chisda too, holds of 'Ho'il'? So we are forced to retract from that explanation. We will now have to explain that the Beraisa, which permits baking Iysas Kelavim on Yom-Tov - when he actually has a carcass with which to feed the dogs (and not because of 'Ho'il' (in the eventuality of an animal dying).

(a) We learned earlier that Rav Chisda forbids baking a dough that is jointly owned by a Jew and a Nochri on Yom-Tov. Rav Huna disagrees - he says that Jewish villagers (who were obligated to supply the local soldiers with food) were permitted to bake loaves for them, provided that they would not object to their giving a loaf to a child (because each loaf may be considered to be that loaf).

(b) When a band of robbers was ransacking the town - Shimon ha'Teimani and the Jews of the town Shechted a calf and fed it to them, following which they left them in peace.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava told him that his gain was canceled by his loss - because the Torah writes "Lachem" 've'Lo le'Nochrim'.

(d) We reconcile this with Rav Huna, who just ruled that, under similar circumstances, one may bake a dough on behalf of Nochrim - by establishing the case (of Shimon ha'Teimani) by a calf that was a Tereifah, and was therefore not fit for them to eat.

(a) The fact that a Tereifah animal is anyway fit for dogs makes no difference to the above Halachah - because the Tana'im of this Beraisa hold like Rebbi Yossi Hagelili, who Darshens "Lachem" 've'Lo li'Kelavim'.

(b) Rebbi Akiva precludes cooking for *Nochrim* (from "Lachem"), but not *dogs* - on the grounds that one is obligated to feed one's animals, but not Nochrim.




(a) According to Rebbi Yossi Hagelili, who forbids performing a Melachah for animals - how can one feed one's animals date-stones (that were commonly used for that purpose), since they are Muktzah. (See Tosfos DH 'Hani').

(b) We answer that the stones are fit to be used as fuel for a fire. This will apply, even if they are *very wet* - because they are still fit for a big fire.

(c) One may even feed them to one's animals on *Shabbos* - by carrying them together with bread (see Tosfos DH 'Oseh' and Rosh, Si'man 15).

(d) Shmuel permits using bread in this way - provided one does not render it disgusting.

(a) Rav Huna, whom we saw earlier, permits baking for a Nochri on Yom-Tov, a loaf that one could eat oneself, disagrees with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi - who permitted inviting a Nochri on Shabbos (where one cannot prepare food anyway), but not on Yom-Tov - because we are afraid that one may cook extra food on his behalf.

(b) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov is strict even with regard to inviting a Nochri on Shabbos - because of the left-overs of bread that he dips into wine (which render the cup Muktzah - and we are afraid that one will then pick it up to remove it).

(c) The difference between the leftovers of the cup of a *Jew* and that of a *Nochri* - is that the former is fit to feed the chickens; whereas the latter is not, because it Asur be'Hana'ah.

(d) Despite the fact that one is permitted to move a coal-shovel with ashes on it on Shabbos (even if there are pieces of wood on it, too), one may nevertheless not move the cup which contains the remains of wine and bread - because, as we just explained, it is Asur be'Hana'ah.

(a) A 'G'raf shel Re'i' - is a baby's potty, which one may remove when it becomes disgusting.

(b) One is not permitted to invite the Nochri, and, when he has finished drinking, seeing as the remains constitute a 'G'raf shel Re'i', throw away the remnants in the cup - because a 'G'raf shel Re'i' is only permitted Bedieved. It is not permitted to deliberately create a G'raf shel Re'i, knowing that one will be permitted to remove it later, and inviting a Nochri constitutes creating a G'raf shel Re'i Lechatchilah.

(c) Rava permits inviting a Nochri on Shabbos, like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi. (It is unclear in which point Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi and Rava disagree with Rav Acha bar Ya'akov - in 8b. Perhaps they do not consider inviting a Nochri a case of creating a G'raf shel Re'i Lechatchilah).

(d) Mereimar and Mar Zutra tended to tell uninvited Nochrim who arrived on Yom-Tov - that they were welcome, as long as they were happy to make do with whatever they (Mereimar and Mar Zutra) had prepared for themselves, because they were not permitted to prepare food for *them*.

(a) Beis Shamai permit heating water to wash one's feet on Yom-Tov - provided it is fit for drinking.

(b) Beis Hillel permit it anyway.

(c) The Tana of our Mishnah permits making a fire by which to warm oneself. Even Beis Shamai (who do not hold of 'Mi'toch') might even agree with this - because warming the whole body could be considered 'Ochel Nefesh'.

(d) In fact, the author of our Mishnah - is Beis Hillel, and not Beis Shamai, because Beis Shamai do not consider warming the whole body to be Ochel Nefesh.

(a) Raban Gamliel in our Mishnah permits neither Hatmanah (wrapping hot food on Yom-Tov that falls on Friday) nor picking up a metal Menorah that fell down on Yom-Tov (which will be explained in the course of the Sugya). The *third* ruling that he makes like Beis Shamai - is the prohibition of baking thick loaves on Yom-Tov (only wafers).

(b) When he cited his father's household as his source for this third ruling - the Chachamim said 'What shall we do with your father's household, who were stringent with themselves, but lenient with the rest of Yisrael, and permitted thick loaves as well as bread baked on coal'.

(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel dispute whether or not, one may wrap on Yom- Tov for Shabbos. If one *prepared* an Eiruv Tavshilin, asks the Gemara, then why do Beis Shamai forbid it, whereas if one did *not*, then why do Beis Hillel permit it.

(b) Rav Huna establishes our Mishnah when the owner did not prepare an Eiruv Tavshilin. Nevertheless, Beis Hillel permit Hatmanah - because Rav Huna himself has taught that, even someone who did not prepare an Eiruv, may cook one dish, bake one loaf and kindle one light; and it is that one dish that Beis Hillel is now permitting to wrap.

(c) Some opinions, besides cooking, baking wrapping and kindling a light on Yom-Tov for Shabbos - also permit roasting one small fish.

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