POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafBeitzah 16
BEITZAH 16 - has been dedicated by Harav Avraham Feldman to the memory of
Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev [ben Avrohom Tzvi] Gustman ZT'L, author of "Kuntresei
Shi'urim", on the occasion of his Yahrzeit (28 Sivan).
1) ALLOCATING RESOURCES TO MANKIND
(a) (R. Tachlifa) One must allocate his resources with care
since they are predetermined (on Rosh HaShanah), with
the exception of outlays for Shabbos and YomTov which
are allocated according to the amount spent.
2) CONDUCT REGARDING FOOD FOR SHABBOS
(b) Question: What is the source for the annual allocation?
(c) Answer (R. Avahu): The Pasuk Tik'u BaChodesh... (as
expounded) and Ki Chok (alluding to one's allocation,
as indicated in Bereishis 47:22) l'Yisrael Hu.
(d) Answer (Mar Zutra): The Pasuk Hatrifeini Lechem Chuki.
(a) Shamai HaZaken would always allocate the best item in
his possession for Shabbos, eating the second best
during the week.
3) THE GIFT OF SHABBOS
(b) Hillel HaZaken would eat the food he found each day,
dedicating himself to HaShem (Baruch HaShem Yom Yom).
(c) This is supported by the Beraisa in which Beis Shamai
advocate honoring Shabbos from the first day of the
week, and Beis Hillel relying on Baruch HaShem Yom Yom.
(d) (R. Chama b.R. Chanina) One need not notify his friend
of a gift which he has given him (as HaShem did not
notify Moshe of the radiance which He had bestowed upon
(e) Question: But the Beraisa teaches that one must notify
(based on HaShem notifying the People of the gift of
Shabbos) e.g. a parent must be notified when bread has
been given to a child!?
(f) Answer: A gift which will become known does not require
notification; unlike a gift which will not become
(g) Question: But Shabbos will become known (when the
People are commanded in its performance)!?
(h) Answer: It reward would not become known.
(i) Question: How does one notify the parent of food having
been given to a child?
(j) Answer: One puts traces of oil and blue color on the
child (prompting the parent to ask and the child to
reveal the gift).
(k) Question: What about nowadays when such practices might
alert concern for witchcraft?
(l) Answer (R. Papa): One smears some of the given food
onto the child.
(a) (R. Yochanan citing R. Shimon b. Yochai) All Mitzvos
were given to the People in public except Shabbos
4) USING BREAD FOR ERUV TAVSHILIN
(b) Question: Then how can the Gentiles be held accountable
for not having accepted it?
(c) Answer: The Mitzvah was publicly announced, but not its
(d) Alternate Answer: The reward was also announced, but
not the Neshamah Yeseirah (as taught by Resh Lakish).
(a) (Abaye) One may not fulfil the requirement of Eruv
Tavshilin with bread (only with a cooked dish).
5) MINIMAL ERUVEI TAVSHILIN
(b) Question: Why is bread insufficient?
(c) Answer: He needs the reminder of that which is Melafes.
(d) Question: But Daysa is a cooked dish which is not
Melafes (as indicated by R Zeira's comment regarding
the practice of eating bread with Daysa) and yet it may
be used for an Eruv!?
(e) Answer: We must use something out of the ordinary for
the Eruv, and bread is too common.
(f) Alternate Rendition of Above:
1. (Abaye) Cooked dish, not bread.
2. Question: Why?
3. Answer: We require something unusual.
4. Question: But Daysa is unusual yet it may *not* be
used for the Eruv!?
5. Answer: We require that which is Melafes (a cooked
dish and not bread), and Daysa is not Melafes (as
per R. Zeira's comment).
(a) (R. Chiya) The lentils which remain at the bottom of
the cooking pot suffice for the Eruv Tavshilin,
provided that they combine to a KeZayis.
6) BISHUL AKUM
(b) (R. Yitzhok b.R. Yehudah) The same applies to the fats
which may be scraped off the knife.
(a) (R. Asi citing Rav) Small salted fish are not under the
prohibition of Bishul Akum (since they may be eaten
without cooking, as they have been salted).
(b) (R. Yosef) If a Gentile fried them, a Jew may use them
for Eruv Tavshilin.
(c) If the Gentile makes Kasa d'Harsena from these fish,
then it becomes a Davar Chashuv and is prohibited.
(d) Question: That is obvious (since the flour in the Kasa
d'Harsena cannot be eaten in its raw form)!?
(e) Answer: We might have permitted it by considering the
fish as the Ikar (which it is not).
7) KEZAYIS FOR EACH PARTICIPANT IN THE ERUV
(a) (R. Aba) An Eruv Tavshilin requires a KeZayis.
8) AWARENESS OF THE ERUV
(b) Question: Is that a KeZayis for the Eruv or for each
person relying on that Eruv?
(c) Answer: A KeZayis for the Eruv as R. Aba taught, citing
1. Question: But the Mishnah implies that even *less*
than a KeZayis may remain and the Eruv would still
(d) Question: But the Beraisa teaches that an Eruv may be
made of many varieties, and *has no Shiur*!?
2. Answer: No, the Mishnah means that a KeZayis
remains (and it is called a Kol Shehu relative to
the whole dish or loaf from which this KeZayis
(e) Answer: It means no maximum Shiur (but R. Aba is
correctly citing Rav regarding the minimum Shiur).
(a) (R. Huna citing Rav) An Eruv requires Da'as.
9) OTHER ERUVIN ON YOMTOV-EREV SHABBOS
(b) Question: While surely the one making the Eruv must be
aware; does the one benefiting from the Eruv also
(c) Answer: Da'as is not needed as we find that Amoraim
would make an Eruv for their entire towns.
(d) R. Yakov b. Idi would proclaim that anyone who had not
made an Eruv might rely on his.
1. Question: Until what distance may one rely on it?
(e) Shmuel assured the blind man that he could rely on
Shmuel's Eruv and need not be sad that he forgot to
make his own.
2. Answer (R. Nechumi b. Zechariah citing Abaye):
Until the limits of the Techum Shabbos.
(f) When the same omission occurred on the following year,
Shmuel considered the person to be negligent and did
not permit his reliance on Shmuel's Eruv.
(a) (Tana Kama) One may not make Eruvei Techumin or
Chatzeros on YomTov (it appears like Tikun).
(b) (Rebbi) Eruvei Chatzeros may be made, but not Eruvei
Techumin (since we prohibit him only from making that
Eruv which would allow him to do on Shabbos that which
he cannot do today, on YomTov).
(c) (Rav) The Halachah follows the Tana Kama.
(d) (Shmuel) The Halachah follows Rebbi.
(e) Question: Is the Halachah like Rebbi to permit Eruvei
Chatzeros or to prohibit Eruvei Techumin?
(f) Answer: That is obvious, since Rebbi is coming to be
(g) Question: The doubt arose as a result of the message
sent by R. Elazar to Bavel that they should not teach
that Rebbi permits and Chachamim prohibit, but the
opposite, and now we wonder what Shmuel intended!
(h) Answer: We may infer from that which R. Tachlifa b.
Avdimi did in accordance with the ruling of Shmuel (and
about which Rav disagreed, referring to the ruling as a
1. Surely Rav would not have referred to the ruling
as a Kilkul if it were l'Chumrah.
(i) (Rava citing R. Chisda citing R. Huna) The Halachah is
like Rebbi, meaning l'Chumrah!
2. This implies that Shmuel must have understood
Rebbi to be l'Kulah!
3. No, a Kilkul could be caused by the Chumrah (not
permitting Eruvei Chatzeros) leading people to
transgress when they carry on Shabbos.