THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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BEITZAH 21 & 22 - have been dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of the
Lubavitcher Rebbe, NBG'M (3 Tamuz), by one of his Chasidim.
1) COOKING OR BAKING FOR A "NOCHRI" ON YOM TOV
OPINIONS: Rav Chisda does not permit baking dough on Yom Tov which is owned
by both a Jew and a Nochri. Similarly, Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi (21b) does
not allow cooking one's food for a Nochri, even though the ingredients are
owned entirely by the Jew, and the Jew could take some of it for himself to
eat, if he wishes. In contrast, Rav Huna does permit baking for Nochrim,
even if the ingredients are the Nochrim's own, as long as they permit the
Jew to give part of their portion to a Jewish child.
Are these opinions dissenting, or are they all in agreement?
(a) RASHI (DH Kol Chada) and RABEINU CHANANEL say that Rav Chisda and Rebbi
Yehoshua ben Levi argue with Rav Huna. They maintain that just because one
may take a portion for himself does not permit cooking for a Nochri, because
one's intention actually is to cook for the Nochri. If one wants to cook
food for himself, then he has to cook it individually, and he cannot cook
for the Nochri and keep part of it for himself.
Why is it not permitted to bake bread for the Nochri together with the other
bread which one is baking for oneself? The Gemara earlier (17a) said, in the
name of Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, that it is permitted to bake many loaves in
one oven on Yom Tov, even though one does not need them all!
The RAN and TOSFOS cite an explanation which says that these Amora'im hold
like a Tana who argues with Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar. Alternatively, the RAN
and TOSFOS answer that it is different when the dough belongs to the Nochri,
because in such a case the Jew cannot eat all the bread even if he wants to.
In contrast, in the case earlier (17a), the Jew owns the dough and he may
eat all of the loaves of it if he so desires.
(b) TOSFOS (DH Chazinan) suggests that everyone agrees that when possible,
the Jew should bake his bread by itself and not bake bread for the Nochri
with it on the pretense that he could eat some of it. Rav Huna permitted
baking for the soldiers only because the flour was supplied by the king, and
therefore the Nochrim would not have permitted the Jews to bake bread for
themselves from that flour without also baking for them, because it would be
like stealing from the king. Once the Jews have baked the flour for the
Nochrim, though, the Nochrim do not care if they give some of it to a child.
In such a case, it is permitted to bake for Nochrim and for Jew together.
Rav Chisda agrees to Rav Huna on this point.
Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, however, argues with Rav Huna and does not permit
baking for a Nochri *even when it is not possible* to split up the dough and
bake for oneself alone.
According to Tosfos, cooking for soldiers (who are Nochrim) is similar to
cooking for a guest who is a Nochri, because in the case of the guest as
well, one cannot simply separate some of the raw food and cook it for
oneself, without cooking for the Nochri, because one needs to cook something
for the guest. Nevertheless, Rebbi Yehoshua prohibits cooking for the
(c) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Yom Tov 1:14) cites the opinions of both Rav Huna
and Rav Chisda as the Halachah (ruling like Tosfos, that the two do not
disagree). He permits baking for soldiers if they let one give a roll to a
child. However, in the preceding Halachah (1:13), the Rambam also rules like
Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, that one is not allowed to invite a Nochri on Yom
Tov, lest one cook extra for him.
Why should it be Asur to cook extra for the Nochri, if one cannot cook that
food for himself individually? It should be the same as Rav Huna's case and
be permitted! Apparently the Rambam held that cooking with one's own
ingredients for a Nochri, is not prohibited since one can eat what he cooks
even if he decides to cook everything for himself and not cook for the
Nochri at all. In the case of the king's men, this is not so; had he decided
to eat all that he cooked by himself, he would not have been allowed by the
king to cook the flour at all. Therefore, it is permitted to cook for the
Nochri as well as for his child (who will be given a loaf after all is
prepared), since that is the only way to cook this food for his child.
What about the Gemara on 21b, which says explicitly that Rebbi Yehoshua ben
Levi *argues* with Rav Huna ("u'Peliga...")? The MAGID MISHNAH cites the
approach of the RAN who suggests that perhaps the Rambam did not have the
Girsa of "u'Peliga" in his Gemara, and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi is not
arguing with Rav Huna. Alternatively, he says that the Rambam is Gores
"u'Peliga," but learned that Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi is arguing not with Rav
Huna, but with the immediately preceding Sugya (regarding the status of
items that are given to those (such as animals) for whom it is prohibited to
do Melachah of Ochel Nefesh on Yom Tov).
The RA'AVAD (there) endorses the Rambam's ruling, although he says that the
Rambam's ruling is not the ruling of the RIF.
2) ADDING FOOD FOR A "NOCHRI" ON YOM TOV
QUESTION: The Gemara says that it is prohibited to invite a Nochri to one's
home on Yom Tov, lest one add more food and cook specifically for him
("Shema Yarbeh bi'Sh'vilo"). What is wrong with cooking more food for the
Nochri? We learned earlier (17a) that it is permitted to add as much food as
one wants to one pot, even if he does not plan on eating all of it on Yom
3) HALACHAH: WASHING ONE'S ENTIRE BODY ON YOM TOV
(a) The RASHBA and the RAN explain that the fear is that one will cook more
for the Nochri in a *separate* pot.
(b) The ME'IRI answers that the fear is that one will add meat to the pot
after it is already on the flame. In that case, the Melachah of putting meat
on the flame is being done solely for the Nochri. It is permitted only to
add extra meat before the pot is placed on the fire.
According to both explanations, even if a person does cook for the Nochri,
it should be Asur only mid'Rabanan, because we hold of the principle of
"Ho'il" (20a) which states that since guests might come for whom one may
cook more food on Yom Tov, then he may cook it now as well. This permits
cooking extra food on Yom Tov mid'Oraisa. Nevertheless, the Rabanan
prohibited inviting a Nochri, lest one cook more food for him. Even though
the Gezeirah not to invite a Nochri is a Gezeirah l'Gezeirah (not to invite
him lest one cook extra for him, which is itself only Asur mid'Rabanan), the
Rabanan enacted it because it is really all one Gezeirah. Alternatively, the
Rabanan were concerned that one might cook non-Kosher meat in a separate pot
for the Nochri, in which case "Ho'il" does not apply (since it is not fit
for Jewish guests), and cooking such food for a Nochri is Asur mid'Oraisa.
OPINIONS: Beis Hillel permits heating water on Yom Tov to wash one's feet.
Why did they not permit heating water to wash one's entire body?
(a) TOSFOS (DH Lo) says that the Heter of heating water to wash one's feet
is because of "Mitoch" (Beis Hillel is consistent with his opinion, for he
holds of Mitoch (12a)). It is Asur to heat water in order to wash one's
entire body, because that is something which is not "Shaveh l'Chol Nefesh,"
-- not everyone considers it pleasurable to wash his entire body daily, and
"Mitoch" does not permit Melachos which are not "Shaveh l'Chol Nefesh."
HALACHAH: The Halachah follows Beis Hillel. It is Asur to heat water on Yom
Tov in order to wash one's entire body, but it is permitted to heat water to
wash one's feet, as well as one's hands and face (SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 511:2).
(Regarding washing one's entire body with water that was heated on Erev Yom
Tov, see RAN here, and the SHULCHAN ARUCH (loc. cit.), and the REMA there.)
(b) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Yom Tov 1:16) explains that the reason it is
permitted to heat water to wash one's feet is because washing is a
subcategory of eating and drinking (as is spreading oil on one's body), and
therefore it is permitted on Yom Tov because of Ochel Nefesh. It is
prohibited to heat water to wash the entire body because of the Gezeirah of
Merchatz (Shabbos 40a; the Rabanan prohibited washing one's entire body on
Shabbos, lest one heat up the water on Shabbos; they extended the Gezeirah
to Yom Tov as well, so that one not think that it is permitted to heat water
The RAMBAM is following his opinion (1:4) that the only Melachos which are
permitted by "Mitoch" are Hav'arah and Hotza'ah, but not Bishul. Bishul is
permitted only for actual Ochel Nefesh, and therefore here it is permitted
to cook the water because washing is considered Ochel Nefesh.